Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 8, Issue 6 June 2012
Rubella vaccine: New horizon in prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the India
Ramesh Verma, Pardeep Khanna and Suraj Chawla
Rubella is a contagious viral disease, which mainly affects the fetus, if the mother is infected in the 1st trimester of her pregnancy. All adolescent girls (aged 11 to 19 y) and women of childbearing age are at risk of developing rubella. This disease is mild and self-limiting, and incubation period is 2–3 weeks. Humans are the only hosts for rubella. Rubella infection during pregnancy may lead to abortions, stillbirth or congenital deformities (birth defects). Moreover it is surprising to know that over 200,000 babies are born with birth defects because of Rubella infection during pregnancy in the Indian sub-continent. The risk of fetal infection is highest in first trimester; the infection rate declines between 12–28 weeks, suggesting that the placenta may prevent transfer of virus but not completely. The incidence of defects is inversely related to the time of maternal infection. Rubella outbreaks have been reported from many countries in South East Asian region with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) due to maternal rubella being on the increase in many countries. In India, although the endemicity of rubella is established, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, being subclinical or clinically mild. Consequently, in spite of evidence of CRS in all States of India, no distinct policy has been envisaged for assessing the burden of rubella, and no control measures against this silent crippling disease are in place. The European Regional Committee of the World Health Organization has adopted the goals of “Elimination of CRS” in the Health for All programs. There is no treatment for rubella. Vaccination is the only way to prevent all these complications.