MMWR Weekly: 12, 19, 26 August 2011

The MMWR Weekly issues from the last several weeks include:

August 26, 2011 / Vol. 60 / No. 33
National and State Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13 Through 17 Years — United States, 2010

Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011

Announcement: Clinical Vaccinology Course — November 4–6, 2011

August 19, 2011 / Vol. 60 / No. 32 / Pg. 1073 – 1116
Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women — United States, 2010–11 Influenza Season

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health-Care Personnel — United States, 2010–11 Influenza Season
Although influenza vaccination levels have improved over the past few years, vaccination coverage among health-care personnel (HCP) remains below our 2020 national health objectives. All HCP should be vaccinated annually for influenza, according to recommendations from the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). In a national survey conducted in April 2011 of 1,931 HCP, influenza vaccination coverage among all HCP for the 2010-11 season was 63.5 percent, with coverage of 84 percent among physicians and 70 percent among nurses.  Near universal coverage was achieved among HCP who reported being subject to an employer requirement for vaccination.  In the absence of requirements, increased vaccination coverage was associated with vaccination being offered to HCP onsite free of charge for multiple days.  Influenza vaccination coverage among HCP is important for patient safety, and healthcare administrators should make vaccination readily accessible to all HCP as an important part of any comprehensive infection control program.

August 12, 2011 / Vol. 60 / No. 31 / Pg. 1045 – 1072
Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication — Nigeria, January 2010–June 2011

Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER): 12, 18 August 2011

The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) for 12 and 18 August 2011, include:

19 August 2011, vol. 86, 34 (pp 365–376)
– Outbreak news: Outbreak of illness in schools, Angola; West Nile virus infection in Europe
– Neglected zoonotic diseases: report from the third international conference, November 2010
– Yellow fever in the WHO African and American Regions, 2010

12 August 2011, vol. 86, 33 (pp 353–364)
– Third meeting of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s Independent Monitoring Board
– Progress towards eradicating poliomyelitis – Nigeria, January 2010–June 2011
– Monthly report on dracunculiasis cases, January–June 2011

Twitter Watch: 9 – 27 August 2011

Twitter Watch
A selection of items of interest [tracking to 19 August 2011] from a variety of twitter feeds. This capture is highly selective and by no means intended to be exhaustive.

PIH Partners In Health
New Report: Financing the Response to #AIDS in Low & Middle Income Countries via @unaids @KaiserFamFound

GAVIAlliance GAVI Alliance
Want to learn more about IFFIm? Check out our overview to learn more.

GAVISeth Seth Berkley
A reminder of why vaccination campaigns in refugee camps are critically important:  #vaccines @UNICEF

Now online! CDC recommends seasonal #flu #shot for people with egg #allergy

Happy birthday to Dr. Sabin! developer of oral #polio #vaccine that made prospect of #eradication possible.

PublicHealth APHA
Vaccination rates among teens are up overall, but growth lags on HPV vaccine, says CDC research:

wellcometrust Wellcome Trust
Immunising at birth is safe and effective against severe pneumococcal disease

Eurovaccine ECDC Eurovaccine
‘Vaccinations : 20 objections and responses’ from Germany’s Robert Koch Institute & Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

gatesfoundation Gates Foundation
Congratulations to #Europe: @UN hails the #EU for fighting outbreaks to remain free of #polio:

MalariaVaccine PATH MVI
New Vision article discusses the need for the Ugandan government to prepare for a malaria vaccine:

PATH CEO Chris Elias on @ModernizeAid blog: Budget cuts threaten lives abroad and the economy at home.

GAVISeth Seth Berkley
Robert Steinglass of @JSIhealth interviewed on how to improve #vaccine delivery #coldchain: via @gplushealth

GAVIAlliance GAVI Alliance
“The dispassionate economic case for vaccination looks at least as strong as the compassionate medical one” The Economist

sabinvaccine Sabin Vaccine Inst.
Today on Sabin’s blog: Immunization Financing in Latin America…

unpublications UN Publications
On World Humanitarian Day UN pays tribute to aid workers around globe. Learn more about the campaign here:

Comment: “Irrelevant” WHO outpaced by younger rivals

British Medical Journal
13 August 2011 Volume 343, Issue 7819

 Irrelevant” WHO outpaced by younger rivals
Nigel Hawkes, freelance journalist

The World Health Organization’s critics accuse it of being bogged down in red tape and internal politics. However, attempts at reform are raising concerns over conflicts of interest. Nigel Hawkes reports

For as long as many can remember, the World Health Organization has been facing a crisis. From decade to decade, the nature of that crisis might change, but it never quite goes away.

Despite its past accomplishments, WHO fits increasingly uneasily into a world with a growing number of international players who seem fleeter of foot and deeper of pocket. Set up as an agency to provide advice to governments at a time when government health departments were the prime movers in health policy and delivery, it seems passé beside such upstarts as the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the GAVI Alliance (formerly known as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization), and private philanthropies such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Setting the agenda of global health?
The existence of such organisations is a reproach to WHO, whose bureaucracy and politicisation have been increasingly bypassed by governments in the interests of getting something done. Jack C Chow, a former assistant director general of WHO, claimed last year that the organisation was becoming irrelevant. 1 It was outmoded, underfunded, and overly politicised, he said. “WHO is no longer setting the agenda of global health; it’s struggling to keep up.” His theme was echoed this year by Barry R Bloom, professor of public health at Harvard, who pointed out that of WHO’s budget of $3.9bn (£2.4bn; €2.7bn) in 2008-9, less than $1bn came from member states’ mandatory contributions. 2 The rest were earmarked funds provided by countries or foundations for specific projects, indicating a lack of confidence in WHO’s ability to set the right priorities if left to itself…

Globally mobile populations and infectious disease outbreaks

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Volume 53 Issue 5 September 1, 2011

Crossing Borders: One World, Global Health
Clive M. Brown, Martin S. Cetron, Section Editors
An editorial feature on globally mobile populations and infectious disease outbreaks, written by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Global Migration and Quarantine

An End to the Era of the US HIV Entry Ban
(Kent Taylor and Stacy Howard)—

In 1991 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was added to the list of diseases that bar entry to the United States (US) for non-US citizens as a requirement stipulated by congressional statute. Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) has the authority to establish requirements for the medical examination of immigrants and refugees that determine admission into the United States. These requirements are promulgated in Title 42, Part 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which includes specific, serious contagious illnesses, known as a communicable disease of public health significance. Almost 20 years after the inclusion of HIV on this list of diseases, this action has been reversed. The reversal was made possible by ending the statutory ban imposed by Congress in 1987.

In 2004, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UN/AIDS) and the International Organization for Migration issued a statement on HIV/AIDS-related travel restrictions. This statement provided guidance to governments in addressing the public health, economic, and human rights concerns involved in HIV-related travel restrictions. As more information became available about HIV transmission, which cannot take place through casual contact, combined with the reality of globalization, this entry ban became increasingly contradictory to US policies supporting civil liberties. In addition, the ban was detrimental in the fight against HIV/AIDS. After a thorough medical and epidemiologic review of HIV transmission, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) made a policy decision that an entry ban for HIV infection was not a viable control strategy for HIV.

CDC initiated the first step in removing HIV infection as an inadmissible condition by …

[Full Text of this Article]

Fully Heterotypic G9P[4] Rotavirus Strain in Mexico

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 204 Issue 5 September 1, 2011

Catherine Yen, Jesùs Reyna Figueroa, Edgar Sánchez Uribe, Luz del Carmen-Hernández, Jacqueline E. Tate, Umesh D. Parashar, Manish M. Patel, and Vesta Richardson López-Collado

Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Provides Protection Against an Emerging Fully Heterotypic G9P[4] Rotavirus Strain in Mexico
J Infect Dis. (2011) 204(5): 783-786 doi:10.1093/infdis/jir390

After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006–2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the G9P[4] emergence was related to vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate. RV1 was 94% effective (95% confidence interval, 16%–100%) against G9P[4] rotavirus–related hospitalization, indicating that its emergence was likely unrelated to vaccine pressure.