Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review 20 August 2016

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

.Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_20 August 2016

blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
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Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review resumes publication on 20 August 2016

Publication will resume on 20 August 2016 following the Editor’s annual leave

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 Editor’s Note
While still on annual leave, we could not help but take note of Nigeria’s report of two, new wild poliovirus cases as described in the WHO and Nigerian Federal Ministry of Heath news releases below.

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Government of Nigeria reports 2 wild polio cases, first since July 2014
New cases come on the two-year anniversary since the last confirmed case of polio was reported in Africa
WHO News release
11 August 2016 ¦ GENEVA – After more than two years without wild poliovirus in Nigeria, the Government reported today that 2 children have been paralyzed by the disease in the northern Borno state.

As an immediate priority, the Government of Nigeria is collaborating with WHO and other partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to respond urgently and prevent more children from being paralyzed. These steps include conducting large-scale immunization campaigns and strengthening surveillance systems that help catch the virus early. These activities are also being strengthened in neighboring countries.

“We are deeply saddened by the news that 2 Nigerian children have been paralyzed by polio. The Government has made significant strides to stop this paralyzing disease in recent years. The overriding priority now is to rapidly immunize all children around the affected area and ensure that no other children succumb to this terrible disease”, said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa.

Genetic sequencing of the viruses suggests that the new cases are most closely linked to a wild poliovirus strain last detected in Borno in 2011. Low-level transmission of the poliovirus is not unexpected, particularly in areas where it is difficult to reach children with the vaccine. Subnational surveillance gaps persist in some areas of Borno, as well as in areas of neighbouring countries.

On the brink of polio eradication
“We are confident that with a swift response and strong collaboration with the Nigerian Government, we can soon rid the country of polio once and for all. This is an important reminder that the world cannot afford to be complacent as we are on the brink of polio eradication – we will only be done when the entire world has been certified polio-free,” said Dr. Michel Zaffran, Director of polio eradication at WHO Headquarters.

As recently as 2012, Nigeria accounted for more than half of all polio cases worldwide, but the country has made significant strides, recently marking 2 years without a case on 24 July 2016. This progress has been the result of a concerted effort by all levels of government, civil society, religious leaders and tens of thousands of dedicated health workers. Recent steps including increased community involvement and the establishment of Emergency Operations Centers at the national and state level have been pivotal to Nigeria’s capacity to respond to outbreaks.

The 2 cases in Nigeria particularly highlight the need to prioritize immunization of children in hard-to-reach areas such as the Lake Chad region, which spans several countries and is often affected by conflict and large population movements. Reaching these children requires vaccinating populations as they move in and out of inaccessible areas and using local-level groups and organizations, such as religious institutions and community based organizations, to negotiate access for vaccination teams.

Globally, the world is very close to reaching the goal of polio eradication. Only 21 wild polio cases have been reported so far in 2016, compared to 34 cases at the same point last year. Only 2 other countries are reporting polio: Pakistan and Afghanistan. Four out of the 6 WHO Regions of the world have been certified polio-free, and only one of the three types of wild poliovirus is still circulating in the world (type 1).

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Wild Polio Virus Detected In Borno State
Nigeria – Federal Ministry of Health
Press Release – Undated

The Honourable Minister of Health, Prof.Isaac Adewole has confirmed an outbreak of wild polio virus (WPV) in Borno State.

The outbreak has affected two children from Gwoza and Jere Local Government Areas (LGA) of the State.

The discovery and confirmation of the outbreak was as a result of strengthened surveillance due to improved accessibility which has been made possible by the recent military action in liberating more communities in the North-Eastern part of the country.

The Minister said the detection of children paralyzed by polio shows that surveillance has increased with more access but it is a reminder that the country needs to remain vigilant and immunize all eligible children with polio vaccine until polio is completely eradicated worldwide.
‘’Our overriding priority right now is to rapidly boost immunity in the affected areas to ensure that no more children are affected by this terrible disease.’’ He added.

To this end, the Hon. Minister has directed the deployment of a national emergency response team, comprising government and partners to Borno State for immediate and robust polio vaccination campaign, targeting eligible children to prevent the spread of the virus locally and internationally.

The Federal Ministry of Health through the National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA) with the support of partners including WHO and UNICEF are conducting detailed risk analysis to clearly ascertain the extent of circulation of the virus, and to assess overall levels of population immunity in order to guide the response.

As an immediate response, about one million children are to be immunized in four local government areas in Borno State. Children in adjoining states of Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe will also be immunized bringing the number to about five million in the four states.

Prof.Adewole reiterates the Federal Government’s commitment to achieving a polio-free Nigeria and assures the general public that this outbreak will be controlled as soon as possible adding that government will provide the needed resources to contain it.

He therefore called on other states and local governments to redouble their efforts by safeguarding their territories from importation of the virus by providing the required leadership and ensuring accountability among healthcare workers and other stakeholders.

It would be recalled that in 2012, Nigeria accounted for more than half of all polio cases worldwide, but the country has made significant strides in recent years, going two years without a single case.

This progress has been as a result of concerted efforts by all level of government, civil society, traditional and religious leaders as well as dedicated health workers.

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

 

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review 30 July 2016

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

.Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_30 July 2016

blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Publication will resume on 20 August 2016 following annual leave for the Editor.

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review 23 July 2016

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

.Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here:  Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_23 July 2016

blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Zika virus [to 23 July 2016]

Zika virus [to 23 July 2016]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/en/

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5 reasons to support WHO’s global response to Zika virus
Zika virus and its complications represent a new type of public health threat that requires a unique and integrated strategy. WHO/PAHO and 14 partners need a combined amount of US$122.1 million for the global response plan….
[The “five reasons” presented without supporting text available at link above]
1. WHO is the only agency with universal legitimacy in matters of international health, to lead and coordinate the response to Zika.
2. WHO helps countries develop and strengthen health and social services for individuals, families and communities affected by Zika.
3. WHO fast-tracks the availability of effective diagnostic tests, vaccines and public health guidance.
4. WHO works to prevent adverse health outcomes through mosquito control, risk communication and community engagement.
5. WHO communicates vital information to decision-makers

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Zika situation report – 21 July 2016
Full report: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/246241/1/zikasitrep21Jul16-eng.pdf?ua=1
Summary [Excerpt]
:: WHO and partners established a definition of what constitutes an outbreak, endemic transmission, and the interruption of mosquito-borne transmission in order to better characterize the level of transmission of Zika virus infection (Table 1, Fig. 2). This classification system was put into use as of the situation report of 7 July 2016.

:: As of 20 July 2016, 65 countries and territories (Fig. 1, Table 1) have reported evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission since 2007 (62 of these countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission since 2015):
…48 countries and territories with a first reported outbreak from 2015 onwards (Table 1).
…Four countries are classified as having possible endemic transmission or have reported evidence of local mosquito-borne Zika infections in 2016.
…13 countries and territories have reported evidence of local mosquito-borne Zika infections in or before 2015, but without documentation of cases in 2016, or with the outbreak terminated.

:: No new country or territory has reported mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the week to 20 July 2016.

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Zika Open [to 23 July 2016]
[Bulletin of the World Health Organization]
:: All papers available here
RESEARCH IN EMERGENCIES
A rapid review of personal protective measures for preventing Zika virus infection among pregnant women
– Vicky Nogueira Pileggi, Giordana Campos Braga, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues, João Paulo Dias de Souza
Posted: 21 July 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.182592

Designing serological diagnostics based on evolutionarily divergent immunogenic regions in the Zika virus genome
– Hsiao-Han Chang, Yonatan H. Grad, David Camerini, & Marc Lipsitch
Posted: 18 July 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.182105

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CDC/ACIP [to 23 July 2016]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
Press Release
THURSDAY, JULY 21, 2016
CDC awards $60 million to help states and territories battle Zika
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will begin making awards totaling nearly $60 million to states, cities, and territories to support efforts to protect Americans from Zika virus…

Media Advisory
WEDNESDAY, JULY 20, 2016
Webcast: Clinical Evaluation & Management of Infants with Congenital Zika Infection
CDC will host a meeting in collaboration with the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Transcript
TUESDAY, JULY 19, 2016
Transcript for CDC Media Availability: Support for Utah investigation of Zika

Media Statement
MONDAY, JULY 18, 2016
CDC assisting Utah investigation of Zika virus infection apparently not linked to travel
CDC is assisting in the investigation of a case of Zika in a Utah resident who is a family contact of the elderly Utah resident who died in late June….

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UNICEF [to 23 July 2016]
http://www.unicef.org/media/media_89711.html
18 July 2016
Twelvefold increase in Zika cases since Ecuador earthquake
NEW YORK/PANAMA/QUITO,– Three months after the Ecuador earthquake, the number of Zika Virus cases increased from 92 to 1,106 country-wide, with the sharpest increase in the quake-hit areas.

POLIO [to 23 July 2016]

POLIO [to 23 July 2016]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

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Polio this week as of 19 July 2016
:: The Independent Monitoring Board is meeting in London on 20-21 July to assess progress towards polio eradication .
:: The Technical Advisory Group on polio eradication for Afghanistan met in Kabul on 11-13 July and commended progress towards interrupting the transmission of polio whilst stressing the challenges that remain. Progress in the context of surveillance was also commended in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance Review that took place in Afghanistan in June.
:: Selected Country Levels Updates [excerpted]
No new cases at country level reported.

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World Bank [to 23 July 2016]
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/all
Date: July 19, 2016
Amidst Conflict, World Bank Reaches 1.5 Million Yemeni Children with Polio Vaccines
:: The crisis in Yemen has taken a heavy toll on the country’s children, with thousands killed and thousands more at risk of disease and malnutrition.
:: All World Bank Group operations in Yemen were suspended when the conflict worsened, but a partnership with the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) has allowed for the continuation of key activities of two Bank-funded health projects.
:: The Health and Population Project has provided critical support for the national polio campaign that has managed to vaccinate 1.5 million Yemeni children despite the conflict.