Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopian settings and its association with previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BMC Infectious Diseases

(Accessed 25 March 2017)

Research article
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopian settings and its association with previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifamp…
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema and Feleke Moges
BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:219
Published on: 20 March 2017

A qualitative study of participants’ views on re-consent in a longitudinal biobank

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 25 March 2017)

Research article
A qualitative study of participants’ views on re-consent in a longitudinal biobank
Biomedical research increasingly relies on long-term studies involving use and re-use of biological samples and data stored in large repositories or “biobanks” over lengthy periods, often raising questions about whether and when a re-consenting process should be activated. We sought to investigate the views on re-consent of participants in a longitudinal biobank.
Mary Dixon-Woods, David Kocman, Liz Brewster, Janet Willars, Graeme Laurie and Carolyn Tarrant
BMC Medical Ethics 2017 18:22
Published on: 23 March 2017

Epidemiology and Infection, Volume 145 – Issue 5 – April 2017

Epidemiology and Infection
Volume 145 – Issue 5 – April 2017
http://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/latest-issue

Research Article
Long-term effectiveness of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine 22–28 years after immunization in a hepatitis B virus endemic rural area: is an adult booster dose needed?
Published online: 09 January 2017, pp. 887-894
H. LI, G. J. LI, Q. Y. CHEN, Z. L. FANG, X. Y. WANG, C. TAN, Q. L. YANG, F. Z. WANG, F. WANG, S. ZHANG, S. L. BI, L. P. SHEN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816003046

.

Research Article
Maximizing the benefits of ART and PrEP in resource-limited settings
Published online: 29 December 2016, pp. 942-956
G. AKUDIBILLAH, A. PANDEY, J. MEDLOCK
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816002958
Abstract
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly being used as an HIV-prevention tool, administered to uninfected people with ongoing HIV exposure as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to infected people to reduce their infectiousness. We used a modelling approach to determine the optimal population-level combination of ART and PrEP allocations required in South Africa to maximize programme effectiveness for four outcome measures: new infections, infection-years, death and cost. We considered two different strategies for allocating treatment, one that selectively allocates drugs to sex workers and one that does not. We found that for low treatment availability, prevention through PrEP to the general population or PrEP and ART to sex workers is key to maximizing effectiveness, while for higher drug availability, ART to the general population is optimal. At South Africa’s current level of treatment availability, using prevention is most effective at reducing new infections, infection-years, and cost, while using the treatment as ART to the general population best reduces deaths. At treatment levels that meet the UNAIDS’s ambitious new 90–90–90 target, using all or almost all treatment as ART to the general population best reduces all four outcome measures considered.

Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/
[Accessed 25 March 2017]

Debate
Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation
Global healthcare innovation networks nowadays have expanded beyond developed countries with many developing countries joining the force and becoming important players. China, in particular, has seen a significant increase in the number of innovative firms and research organizations stepping up to the global network in recent years. Nevertheless, the intense Research and Development input has not brought about the expectable output. While China is ascending at a great speed to a leading position worldwide in terms of Research and Development investment, scientific publications and patents, the innovation capabilities in the pharmaceutical sector remain weak.
Jingyun Ni, Junrui Zhao, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Yuanjia Hu, Hao Hu and Yitao Wang
Globalization and Health 2017 13:21
Published on: 24 March 2017

Operational and implementation research within Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria grants: a situation analysis in six countries

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/
[Accessed 25 March 2017]

Research
Operational and implementation research within Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria grants: a situation analysis in six countries
Sabine Kiefer, Astrid M. Knoblauch, Peter Steinmann, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Mahnaz Vahedi, Dermot Maher, Jürg Utzinger and Kaspar Wyss
Globalization and Health 2017 13:22
Published on: 24 March 2017
Abstract
Background
Operational/implementation research (OR/IR) is a key activity to improve disease control programme performance. We assessed the extent to which malaria and tuberculosis (TB) grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (“Global Fund”) include support for OR/IR, and discuss the implications of the current Global Fund operating mechanisms for OR/IR support.
Methods
The situation analysis focussed on malaria and TB, while HIV was excluded. Stakeholder interviews were conducted at the Global Fund secretariat and in six purposefully selected high disease burden countries, namely the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Zimbabwe. Interviewed in-country stakeholders included the relevant disease control programme managers, project implementation partners, representatives from international organisations with a stake in global health, academic and governmental research institutions, and other relevant individuals such as members of the country coordination mechanism. Additionally, documentation of grants and OR/IR obtained from the Global Fund was reviewed.
Results
The Global Fund provides substantial resources for malaria and TB surveys, and supports OR/IR if such support is requested and the application is well justified. We observed considerable variations from one country to another and between programmes with regards to need, demand, absorption capacity and funding for OR/IR related to malaria and TB. Important determinants for the extent of such funding are the involvement of national research coordination bodies, established research agendas and priorities, human and technical research capacity, and involvement of relevant stakeholders in concept note development. Efforts to disseminate OR/IR findings were generally weak, and the Global Fund does not maintain a central OR/IR database. When faced with a need to choose between procurement of commodities for disease control and supporting research, countries tend to seek research funding from other donors. The Global Fund is expected to issue more specific guidance on the conditions under which it supports OR/IR, and to adapt administrative procedures to facilitate research.
Conclusions
The importance of OR/IR for optimising disease control programmes is generally accepted but countries vary in their capacity to demand and implement studies. Countries expect guidance on OR/IR from the Global Fund. Administrative procedures specifically related to the budget planning should be modified to facilitate ad-hoc OR/IR funding. More generally, several countries expressed a need to strengthen capacity for planning, negotiating and implementing research

Privilege and inclusivity in shaping Global Health agendas

Health Policy and Planning
Volume 32 Issue 3 April 2017
http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

Editorial
Privilege and inclusivity in shaping Global Health agendas
Health Policy Plan (2017) 32 (3): 303-304.
Kabir Sheikh, Sara C Bennett, Fadi el Jardali, George Gotsadze
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czw146
Published: 24 October 2016
Initial text
Northern voices dominate Global Health discussions. Of recent Lancet Commissions, excluding representatives from international organizations, 70% of commissioners on the Women and Health commission came from the global North, and likewise, 71% of the Health and Climate Change commission, 72% of the Global Surgery commission and 73% of the Global Health commission (Lancet 2016). Only two out of the 16-member Board of Directors of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health come from the global South (CUGH 2016). No current or past president and only one current member of the World Health Summit’s scientific committee is from the global South (WHS 2016). Only one of the 17 advisory board members of the journal Global Health Governance is based in a low/middle income…

Public health expenditure and health system responsiveness for low-income individuals: results from 63 countries

Health Policy and Planning
Volume 32 Issue 3 April 2017
http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

Public health expenditure and health system responsiveness for low-income individuals: results from 63 countries
Chetna Malhotra; Young Kyung Do
Abstract
Improvement in overall responsiveness to people’s expectations is an important goal for any health system; socioeconomic equity in responsiveness is equally important. However, it is not known if socioeconomic disparities in responsiveness can be reduced through greater public health expenditures. This article assesses the relationship of the proportion of public health expenditure over total health expenditure (PPHE) with responsiveness for poorest individuals and the difference in responsiveness between the richest and poorest individuals. We used data from six responsiveness dimensions (prompt attention, dignity, choice, clarity of information, confidentiality and quality of basic amenities) of outpatient services from World Health Survey data from 63 countries. Hierarchical Ordered Probit (HOPIT) models assessed the probability of ‘very good’ responsiveness in each domain among the poorest and richest individuals for each country, correcting for reporting heterogeneity through vignettes. Linear regression models were then used to assess the association between predicted probabilities from HOPIT models and PPHE, adjusting for (log) Gross Domestic Product per capita. The study findings showed that higher PPHE was associated with a higher probability of ‘very good’ responsiveness for each domain among the poorest individuals, and with smaller pro-rich disparities in responsiveness between the richest and poorest individuals. In conclusion, increasing PPHE may improve the responsiveness of health services for the poorest individuals and reduce disparities in responsiveness between the richest and poorest individuals.