Bringing the social into vaccination research: Community-led ethnography and trust-building in immunization programs in Sierra Leone

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Research Article
Bringing the social into vaccination research: Community-led ethnography and trust-building in immunization programs in Sierra Leone
Luisa Enria, Joseph S. Bangura, Hassan M. Kanu, Joseph A. Kalokoh, Alie D. Timbo, Mohamed Kamara, Maligie Fofanah, Alhassan N. Kamara, Adikalie I. Kamara, Morlai M. Kamara, Ibrahim Sorie Suma, Osman M. Kamara, Alusine M. Kamara, Alhajie O. Kamara, Abu B. Kamara, Emmah Kamara, Shelley Lees, Mark Marchant, Mariama Murray
Research Article | published 22 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258252

Epidemiology of measles cases, vaccine effectiveness, and performance towards measles elimination in The Gambia

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Epidemiology of measles cases, vaccine effectiveness, and performance towards measles elimination in The Gambia
Alieu Sowe, Mbye Njie, Dawda Sowe, Sidat Fofana, Lamin Ceesay, Yaya Camara, Brook Tesfaye, Samba Bah, Alieu K. Bah, Abdoulie K. Baldeh, Bakary D. Dampha, Samba N. Baldeh, Alagie Touray
Research Article | published 21 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258961

Parental acceptance and knowledge of varicella vaccination in relation to socioeconomics in Sweden: A cross-sectional study

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Parental acceptance and knowledge of varicella vaccination in relation to socioeconomics in Sweden: A cross-sectional study
Lisen Arnheim-Dahlström, Natalie Zarabi, Karin Hagen, Goran Bencina
Research Article | published 21 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256642

Politicization of COVID-19 health-protective behaviors in the United States: Longitudinal and cross-national evidence

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Politicization of COVID-19 health-protective behaviors in the United States: Longitudinal and cross-national evidence
Wolfgang Stroebe, Michelle R. vanDellen, Georgios Abakoumkin, Edward P. Lemay Jr., William M. Schiavone, Maximilian Agostini, Jocelyn J. Bélanger, Ben Gützkow, Jannis Kreienkamp, Anne Margit Reitsema, Jamilah Hanum Abdul Khaiyom, Vjolica Ahmedi, Handan Akkas, Carlos A. Almenara, Mohsin Atta, Sabahat Cigdem Bagci, Sima Basel, Edona Berisha Kida, Allan B. I. Bernardo, Nicholas R. Buttrick, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Hoon-Seok Choi, Mioara Cristea, Sára Csaba, Kaja Damnjanović, Ivan Danyliuk, Arobindu Dash, Daniela Di Santo, Karen M. Douglas, Violeta Enea, Daiane Gracieli Faller, Gavan Fitzsimons, Alexandra Gheorghiu, Ángel Gómez, Ali Hamaidia, Qing Han, Mai Helmy, Joevarian Hudiyana, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Ding-Yu Jiang, Veljko Jovanović, Željka Kamenov, Anna Kende, Shian-Ling Keng, Tra Thi Thanh Kieu, Yasin Koc, Kamila Kovyazina, Inna Kozytska, Joshua Krause, Arie W. Kruglanksi, Anton Kurapov, Maja Kutlaca, Nóra Anna Lantos, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lemsmana, Winnifred R. Louis, Adrian Lueders, Najma Iqbal Malik, Anton Martinez, Kira O. McCabe, Jasmina Mehulić, Mirra Noor Milla, Idris Mohammed, Erica Molinario, Manuel Moyano, Hayat Muhammad, Silvana Mula, Hamdi Muluk, Solomiia Myroniuk, Reza Najafi, Claudia F. Nisa, Boglárka Nyúl, Paul A. O’Keefe, Jose Javier Olivas Osuna, Evgeny N. Osin, Joonha Park, Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Jonas Rees, Elena Resta, Marika Rullo, Michelle K. Ryan, Adil Samekin, Pekka Santtila, Edyta Sasin, Birga M. Schumpe, Heyla A. Selim, Michael Vicente Stanton, Samiah Sultana, Robbie M. Sutton, Eleftheria Tseliou, Akira Utsugi, Jolien Anne van Breen, Caspar J. Van Lissa, Kees Van Veen, Alexandra Vázquez, Robin Wollast, Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung, Somayeh Zand, Iris Lav Žeželj, Bang Zheng, Andreas Zick, Claudia Zúñiga, N. Pontus Leander
Research Article | published 20 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256740

Increasing Black, Indigenous and People of Color participation in clinical trials through community engagement and recruitment goal establishment

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Increasing Black, Indigenous and People of Color participation in clinical trials through community engagement and recruitment goal establishment
Michele P. Andrasik, Gail B. Broder, Stephaun E. Wallace, Richa Chaturvedi, Nelson L. Michael, Sally Bock, Chris Beyrer, Linda Oseso, Jasmin Aina, Jonathan Lucas, David R. Wilson, James G. Kublin, George A. Mensah
Research Article | published 19 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258858

Risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated healthcare workers

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

 

Risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated healthcare workers
Moza Alishaq, Hanaa Nafady-Hego, Andrew Jeremijenko, Jameela Ali Al Ajmi, Mohamed Elgendy, Suni Vinoy, Sameera Bihi Fareh, Justine Veronica Plaatjies, Mariam Nooh, Nadya Alanzi, Anvar H. Kaleeckal, Ali Nizar Latif, Peter Coyle, Hamed Elgendy, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra, Adeel Ajwad Butt
Research Article | published 15 Oct 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258820

The Strategic Council for Research Excellence, Integrity, and Trust

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
October 12, 2021; vol. 118 no. 41
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/41

 

Research Article
The Strategic Council for Research Excellence, Integrity, and Trust
Marcia McNutt, France A. Córdova, and David B. Allison
PNAS October 12, 2021 118 (41) e2116647118;
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116647118
We announce the creation of a new body within the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine called the Strategic Council for Research Excellence, Integrity, and Trust, charged with advancing the overall health, quality, and effectiveness of the research enterprise across all domains that fund, execute, disseminate, and apply scientific work in the public interest. By promoting the alignment of incentives and policies, adoption of standard tools, and implementation of proven methods, the Strategic Council seeks to optimize the excellence and trustworthiness of research for the benefit of society…

Robust and prototypical immune responses toward influenza vaccines in the high-risk group of Indigenous Australians

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
October 12, 2021; vol. 118 no. 41
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/41

 

Immunology and Inflammation
Open Access
Robust and prototypical immune responses toward influenza vaccines in the high-risk group of Indigenous Australians
Luca Hensen, Thi H. O. Nguyen, Louise C. Rowntree, Timon Damelang, Marios Koutsakos, Malet Aban, Aeron Hurt, Kim L. Harland, Maria Auladell, Carolien E. van de Sandt, Anngie Everitt, Cath Blacker, Damian A. Oyong, Jessica R. Loughland, Jessica R. Webb, Bruce D. Wines, P. Mark Hogarth, Katie L. Flanagan, Magdalena Plebanski, Adam Wheatley, Amy W. Chung, Stephen J. Kent, Adrian Miller, E. Bridie Clemens, Peter C. Doherty, Jane Nelson, Jane Davies, Steven Y. C. Tong, and Katherine Kedzierska
PNAS October 12, 2021 118 (41) e2109388118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2109388118

‘Why are you not dead yet?’ – dimensions and the main driving forces of stigma and discrimination among COVID-19 patients in Sri Lanka

Public Health
Volume 199 Pages e1-e4, 1-118 (October 2021)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/public-health/vol/199/suppl/C

 

Research article Full text access
‘Why are you not dead yet?’ – dimensions and the main driving forces of stigma and discrimination among COVID-19 patients in Sri Lanka
S. Jayakody, S.A. Hewage, N.D. Wickramasinghe, R.A.P. Piyumanthi, … C. Arambepola
Pages 10-16

Post-COVID-19 WHO Reform: Ethical Considerations

Public Health Ethics
Volume 14, Issue 2, July 2021
http://phe.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Original Articles
Post-COVID-19 WHO Reform: Ethical Considerations
Thana C de Campos-Rudinsky
Public Health Ethics, Volume 14, Issue 2, July 2021, Pages 134–147, https://doi.org/10.1093/phe/phab011
Abstract
This study argues against the expansive approach to the WHO reform, according to which to be a better global health leader, WHO should do more, be given more power and financial resources, have more operational capacities, and have more teeth by introducing more coercive monitoring and compliance mechanisms to its IHR. The expansive approach is a political problem, whose root cause lies in ethics: WHO’s political overambition is grounded on WHO’s lack of conceptual clarity on what good leadership means and what health (as a human right) means. This study presents this ethical analysis by putting forth an alternative: the humble approach to the WHO reform. It argues that to be a better leader, WHO should do much less and have a much narrower mandate. More specifically, WHO should focus exclusively on coordination efforts, by ensuring truthful, evidence-based, consistent, and timely shared communications regarding PHEIC among WHO member-states and other global health stakeholders, if the organization desires to be a real global health leader whose authority the international community respects and whose guidance people trust.

SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in untreated wastewater: detection of viral RNA in a low-resource community in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health (RPSP/PAJPH)
https://www.paho.org/journal/en

 

Selected Articles
18 Oct 2021
SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in untreated wastewater: detection of viral RNA in a low-resource community in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Original research | English |

Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells

Science
Volume 374| Issue 6566| 22 Oct 2021
https://www.science.org/toc/science/current

 

Research Articles
Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells
BY Jose Mateus et al.
22 Oct 2021
Open Access
A reduced dose of the Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induces long-lived T cell and antibody responses comparable to natural infection.

A year of genomic surveillance reveals how the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic unfolded in Africa

Science
Volume 374| Issue 6566| 22 Oct 2021
https://www.science.org/toc/science/current

 

A year of genomic surveillance reveals how the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic unfolded in Africa
Eduan Wilkinson et al
09 Sep 2021: 423-431
Open Access
The early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa were dominated by European imports, followed by the local generation of variants.

Light at the end of the tunnel: Influence of vaccine availability and vaccination intention on people’s consideration of the COVID-19 vaccine

Social Science & Medicine
Volume 286 October 2021
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/social-science-and-medicine/vol/286/suppl/C

 

Research article Full text access
Light at the end of the tunnel: Influence of vaccine availability and vaccination intention on people’s consideration of the COVID-19 vaccine
Haoran Chu, Sixiao Liu
Article 114315

Value judgments in a COVID-19 vaccination model: A case study in the need for public involvement in health-oriented modelling

Social Science & Medicine
Volume 286 October 2021
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/social-science-and-medicine/vol/286/suppl/C

 

Short communication Open access
Value judgments in a COVID-19 vaccination model: A case study in the need for public involvement in health-oriented modelling
Stephanie Harvard, Eric Winsberg, John Symons, Amin Adibi
Article 114323

Microplanning for designing vaccination campaigns in low-resource settings: A geospatial artificial intelligence-based framework

Vaccine
Volume 39, Issue 42 Pages 6183-6340 (8 October 2021)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/39/issue/42

 

Research article Open access
Microplanning for designing vaccination campaigns in low-resource settings: A geospatial artificial intelligence-based framework
Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Dante Grapiuna de Almeida, Arthi Shankar Kozhumam, Núbia Cristina da Silva, … João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci
Pages 6276-6282

Cost-effectiveness of routine catch-up hepatitis a vaccination in the United States: Dynamic transmission modeling study

Vaccine
Volume 39, Issue 42 Pages 6183-6340 (8 October 2021)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/39/issue/42

 

Research article Abstract only
Cost-effectiveness of routine catch-up hepatitis a vaccination in the United States: Dynamic transmission modeling study
Elamin H. Elbasha, Yoonyoung Choi, Vince Daniels, Michelle G. Goveia
Pages 6315-6321

Manifesto on the Value of Adult Immunization: “We Know, We Intend, We Advocate”

Vaccines
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines

 

Open Access Opinion
Manifesto on the Value of Adult Immunization: “We Know, We Intend, We Advocate”
by Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi et al.
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111232 (registering DOI) – 22 Oct 2021
Abstract
Immunization through vaccination is a milestone achievement that has made a tremendous contribution to public health. Historically, immunization programs aimed firstly to protect children, who were disproportionally affected by infectious diseases. However, vaccine-preventable diseases can have significant impacts on adult mortality, health, and quality of life. Despite this, adult vaccinations have historically been overlooked in favor of other health priorities, because their benefits to society were not well recognized. As the general population is aging, the issue of vaccination in older adults is gaining importance. In high-income countries, recommendations for the routine vaccination of older adults have been gradually introduced. The Italian National Immunization Plan is considered to be among the most advanced adult vaccination plans in Europe. However, available data indicate there is low adherence to vaccination recommendations in Italy. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the damage that can be caused by an infectious disease, especially among adults and individuals with comorbidities. The aim of this “Manifesto”, therefore, is to provide an overview of the existing evidence on the value of adult vaccination, in the Italian context, with a call to action to healthcare providers and health authorities

Caregivers’ Willingness to Vaccinate Their Children against Childhood Diseases and Human Papillomavirus: A Cross-Sectional Study on Vaccine Hesitancy in Malawi

Vaccines
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines

 

Open Access Article
Caregivers’ Willingness to Vaccinate Their Children against Childhood Diseases and Human Papillomavirus: A Cross-Sectional Study on Vaccine Hesitancy in Malawi
by Gbadebo Collins Adeyanju et al.
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111231 (registering DOI) – 22 Oct 2021
Abstract
Background: Vaccines are among the most effective and cost-efficient public health interventions for promoting child health. However, uptake is considerably affected by vaccine hesitancy. An example is Malawi, with a decline in second vaccine doses and the highest cervical cancer incidence and mortality

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study in Southern Italy

Vaccines
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines

 

Open Access Article
Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study in Southern Italy
by Francesca Gallè et al.
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111222 – 21 Oct 2021
Abstract
In Italy, at the end of 2020, a voluntary immunization plan against COVID-19 was introduced, involving elderly among the first target categories. The aim of this study was to assess, through an online questionnaire, the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of […]

Attitudes of Parents with Regard to Vaccination of Children against COVID-19 in Poland. A Nationwide Online Survey

Vaccines
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines

 

Open Access Article
Attitudes of Parents with Regard to Vaccination of Children against COVID-19 in Poland. A Nationwide Online Survey
by Mateusz Babicki et al.
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101192 – 17 Oct 2021
Abstract
Within a few months, the scientific world achieved a great success, developing effective and safe vaccines against COVID-19. Many countries with full access to vaccines have introduced recommendations for the vaccination of not only people who are at risk of developing severe COVID-19,

medRxiv

medRxiv
medRxiv is a free online archive and distribution server for complete but unpublished manuscripts (preprints) in the medical, clinical, and related health sciences. Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review. They should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information. medRxiv is for the distribution of preprints – complete but unpublished manuscripts – that describe human health research conducted, analyzed, and interpreted according to scientific principles…
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/about-medrxiv
[Accessed 23 Oct 2021]

Selected Content
Autoimmune conditions following mRNA (BNT162b2) and inactivated (CoronaVac) COVID-19 vaccination: a descriptive cohort study among 1.1 million vaccinated people in Hong Kong
Xue Li, Le Gao, Xinning Tong, Vivien K.Y. Chan, Celine S.L. Chui, Francisco Lai, Carlos Wong, Eric Y.F. Wan, Esther W.Y. Chan, Kui Kai Lau, Chak Sing Lau, Ian C.K. Wong
medRxiv 2021.10.21.21265314; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.21.21265314

COVID-19 Vaccine Perceptions and Uptake in a National Prospective Cohort of Essential Workers
Karen Lutrick, Holly Groom, Ashley Fowlkes, Kimberly Groover, Manjusha Gaglani, Patrick Rivers, Allison Naleway, Kimberly Nguyen, Meghan Herring, Kayan Dunnigan, Andrew Phillips, Joel Parker, Khaila Prather, Matthew S Thiese, Zoe Baccam, Harmony Tyner, Sarang Yoon
medRxiv 2021.10.20.21265288; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.20.21265288

Post COVID-19 in children, adolescents, and adults: results of a matched cohort study including more than 150,000 individuals with COVID-19
Martin Roessler, Falko Tesch, Manuel Batram, Josephine Jacob, Friedrich Loser, Oliver Weidinger, Danny Wende, Annika Vivirito, Nicole Toepfner, Martin Seifert, Oliver Nagel, Christina König, Roland Jucknewitz, Jakob Peter Armann, Reinhard Berner, Marina Treskova-Schwarzbach, Dagmar Hertle, Stefan Scholz, Stefan Stern, Pedro Ballesteros, Stefan Baßler, Barbara Bertele, Uwe Repschläger, Nico Richter, Cordula Riederer, Franziska Sobik, Anja Schramm, Claudia Schulte, Lothar Wieler, Jochen Walker, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Jochen Schmitt
medRxiv 2021.10.21.21265133; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.21.21265133

COVID-19: Knowledge, Perception of Risk, Preparedness and Vaccine Acceptability among Healthcare Workers in Kenya
Hafso Mohamed Abdulle, Moses Muia Masika, Julius Otieno Oyugi
medRxiv 2021.10.19.21264712; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.19.21264712

Evidence of transmission from fully vaccinated individuals in a large outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Provincetown, Massachusetts
Katherine J. Siddle, Lydia A. Krasilnikova, Gage K. Moreno, Stephen F. Schaffner, Johanna Vostok, Nicholas A. Fitzgerald, Jacob E. Lemieux, Nikolaos Barkas, Christine Loreth, Ivan Specht, Christopher H. Tomkins-Tinch, Jillian Silbert, Beau Schaeffer, Bradford P. Taylor, Bryn Loftness, Hillary Johnson, Petra L. Schubert, Hanna M. Shephard, Matthew Doucette, Timelia Fink, Andrew S. Lang, Stephanie Baez, John Beauchamp, Scott Hennigan, Erika Buzby, Stephanie Ash, Jessica Brown, Selina Clancy, Seana Cofsky, Luc Gagne, Joshua Hall, Rachel Harrington, Gabrielle L. Gionet, Katherine C. DeRuff, Megan E. Vodzak, Gordon C. Adams, Sabrina T. Dobbins, Sarah D. Slack, Steven K. Reilly, Lisa M. Anderson, Michelle C. Cipicchio, Matthew T. DeFelice, Jonna L. Grimsby, Scott E. Anderson, Brendan S. Blumenstiel, James C. Meldrim, Heather M. Rooke, Gina Vicente, Natasha L. Smith, Katelyn S. Messer, Faye L. Reagan, Zoe M. Mandese, Matthew D. Lee, Marianne C. Ray, Marissa E. Fisher, Maesha A. Ulcena, Corey M. Nolet, Sean E. English, Katie L. Larkin, Kyle Vernest, Sushma Chaluvadi, Deirdre Arvidson, Maurice Melchiono, Theresa Covell, Vaira Harik, Taylor Brock-Fisher, Molly Dunn, Amanda Kearns, William P. Hanage, Clare Bernard, Anthony Philippakis, Niall J Lennon, Stacey B. Gabriel, Glen R. Gallagher, Sandra Smole, Lawrence C. Madoff, Catherine M. Brown, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. MacInnis, Pardis C. Sabeti
medRxiv 2021.10.20.21265137; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.20.21265137

Lack of Trust, Insufficient knowledge and Risk denial; an in-depth Understanding of Health workers Barriers to uptake of the Covid-19 vaccine at Iganga Hospital Eastern Uganda, and Mengo Hospital Kampala Uganda
Lubega Muhamadi, Namulema Edith, Waako James, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Safinah Kisu Museene, Hellen Mukakaarisa, Stefan Swartling Peterson, Anna Mia Ekström
medRxiv 2021.10.13.21264920; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.13.21264920

Ensemble model estimates of the global burden of measles morbidity and mortality from 2000 to 2019: a modeling study
Heather Santos, Kirsten Eilertson, Brian Lambert, Sarah Hauryski, Minal Patel, Matthew Ferrari
medRxiv 2021.08.31.21262916; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.31.21262916

Assessment of knowledge about human papillomavirus vaccination among primary school girls in Arba Minch town, South Ethiopia, 2020. An institution-based cross-sectional study
Eshetu Yisihak Ukumo, Feleke Gebremeskel, Samuel Abebe, Desta Markos Minanmo, Gebresilasea Gendisha Ukke
medRxiv 2021.10.16.21264889; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.16.21264889

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al
 
 
Brookings [to 23 Oct 2021]
http://www.brookings.edu/
Report
Discrimination in the healthcare system is leading to vaccination hesitancy
Gabriel R. Sanchez, Matt Barreto, Ray Block, Henry Fernandez, and Raymond Foxworth
Wednesday, October 20, 2021
 
 
Center for Global Development [to 23 Oct 2021]
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Accessed 23 Oct 2021
Economic and Programmatic Implications for the Covid-19 Vaccine Roll Out in Africa
Event
10/28/21
Curbing the pandemic while protecting access to essential health services requires an ample supply of vaccine, a functioning, well-funded delivery system, and careful planning.

ODA Rules Must Ensure that Vaccine Donations Count for the Poor
October 21, 2021
After buying up the World’s vaccine supply to ensure they can protect their own populations, rich countries have found themselves struggling to use the vaccine surpluses they accumulated. One response has been to donate the spare doses to countries who need them more. This is laudable, and countries who have done so want to receive credit for such actions in their aid statistics—what is known as Official Development Assistance (ODA).
Euan Ritchie, Anthony McDonnell and Ranil Dissanayake

We Should Track Global Vaccine Manufacturing Better – Here Is Why, and How
October 21, 2021
Poor understanding about vaccine capacity was one of the reasons why the world did not have the infrastructure needed to manufacture sufficient doses. This blogs proposes three actions to start tracking manufacturing capacity better and create robust estimates for the world’s vaccine manufacturing capacity.
Anthony McDonnell et al.
 
 
Chatham House [to 23 Oct 2021]
https://www.chathamhouse.org/
Accessed 23 Oct 2021
[No new digest content identified]

 
 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 23 Oct 2021
[No new digest content identified]

 
 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
[No new digest content identified]

 
 
ODI [Overseas Development Institute] [to 23 Oct 2021]
https://odi.org/en/publications/
Publications
What MDBs (and their shareholders) can do for vaccine equity
06 October 2021
In late 2020 the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (AsDB) announced large-scale financing packages to help the rollout of Covid-19 vaccines in low- and middle-income countries. But despite the urgency of doing this to bring the global pandemic to an end, the uptake of these financing packages has so far been slow. Why are committed funds sitting idle at the same time that vaccination programmes are a priority in many countries battling new waves of Covid-19 infections? And at the same time as many activists and world leaders call on G7 leaders to ramp up their contributions to the global vaccination effort?

In this long-read we review some of the factors and bottlenecks that can plausibly explain this low uptake of MDB financing for vaccine purchases from governments in low-and middle-income countries. More importantly, we outline what management and shareholders of MDBs should do to ramp up the use of these financing facilities or deploy resources to support the health response against Covid-19. The fundamental issue has been between the country-based lending model of MDBs and the need to finance and procure a global public good (a low-cost vaccine). MDBs thus need a clearer mandate and dedicated grant financing for global public goods, including vaccine procurement.

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 16 October 2021

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

– pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here:

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

SAGE October 2021 meeting highlights

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

SAGE October 2021 meeting highlights
10 October 2021
Highlights from the Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization
4-7 October 2021
(Full report will be published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record on 17.12.2021, and only
the wording of the full report should be considered as final)

 

Report from the WHO department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals
:: The Director’s report focused on equity in vaccination especially in the COVID-19 pandemic context which has exposed and exacerbated inequities in access to immunization.
:: Access to COVID-19 vaccines has been extreme in its inequity with high-income countries having
administered 35 times more vaccine doses than the low-income countries and the WHO Africa Region countries having only 3% of the population fully vaccinated.
:: While the pandemic has affected childhood immunization programmes across the world, the poorest countries have been affected the most and have been the slowest to recover.
:: Country experiences show that solutions are available and the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) well lays out the path to recovery and to building resilient immunization programmes.

 

WHO Regional updates
:: COVID-19 vaccine rollout has started in all WHO regions though the pace of vaccination varies
considerably between and within regions, driven largely by the unequal access to vaccine supply.
Fifty-six countries found predominantly in the Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions were unable to achieve the target of fully vaccinating 10% of their populations by September 2021, largely because of lack of vaccine doses.
:: As vaccine supplies improve, the WHO regional offices and partner agencies are supporting country preparedness to overcome existing operational challenges and scale up vaccination to reach the goal of 70% coverage by June 2022.
:: Countries in all regions experienced a decline in coverage with routine childhood vaccination, though the magnitude of the decline and the speed of recovery varied.
:: All the regions have developed or are in the process of developing action plans to operationalize IA2030 in their respective regions. This will provide an opportunity to accelerate recovery and to strengthen the resilience of immunization programmes.

 

IA2030 update
:: SAGE was presented with the first progress report on the Immunization Agenda 2030, featuring
baseline data from 2019-2020, as part of an update on the operationalization of IA2030, including the framework and process for monitoring, evaluation, and accountability.
:: The WHO regional offices have developed regional strategies or frameworks aligned to IA2030, in collaboration with their Member States and regional stakeholders; most have been approved by the respective Regional Committees.
:: Progress was made with the development of the IA2030 governance and coordination process and structures, including the partnership council, the coordination group, and working groups.
:: SAGE will conduct independent annual assessments of progress and provide recommendations
for corrective actions to Member States and the relevant Working Groups.
:: SAGE recommended that relevant stakeholders conduct country-by-country analysis of programmatic bottlenecks and challenges to inform corrective actions to be taken at global, regional and national levels.
:: SAGE recommended that countries develop National Immunization Strategies aligned to the IA2030 and Regional Frameworks and establish national monitoring, evaluation, and accountability processes.

 

Poliomyelitis
:: There has been a substantial drop in wild poliovirus detections in the endemic areas in 2021 and there have been no reported cases since February 2021. SAGE emphasized the need to fully engage program resources to achieve eradication while maintaining or strengthening poliovirus surveillance.
:: SAGE expressed concern regarding ongoing transmission of circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), particularly in the African region, the recurrent cVDPV2 outbreaks in Nigeria, and highlighted the need for timely responses.
:: SAGE recommended a cautious approach to withdrawing oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from national routine immunization schedules in the pre-eradication period but acknowledged that countries in polio-free regions with high vaccination coverage may consider switching to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) only schedules, including a 2-dose IPV schedule. Once adequate supply is available, the use of whole-cell pertussis hexavalent vaccines containing IPV will facilitate the use of IPV-only schedules.
:: SAGE endorsed the transition of the novel OPV type 2 vaccine (nOPV2) from initial to wider use under WHO Emergency Use Listing (EUL), based on the findings of the independent safety and genetic stability assessment.

 

COVID-19
:: Bharat Biotech’s COVID-19 Vaccine (COVAXIN) was reviewed by SAGE; a policy recommendation will be issued when the vaccine is Emergency Use listed by WHO.
:: SAGE recommended that moderately and severely immunocompromised persons should be offered an additional dose of all WHO EUL COVID-19 vaccines as part of an extended primary series since these individuals are less likely to respond adequately to vaccination following a standard primary vaccine series and are at high risk of severe COVID-19 disease.
:: For the Sinovac and Sinopharm inactivated vaccines, an additional (third) dose of the homologous vaccine should be offered to persons aged 60 and above as part of an extended primary series. The use of a heterologous platforms vaccine for the additional dose may also be considered based on vaccine supply and access considerations. When implementing this recommendation, countries should initially aim at maximizing 2-dose coverage in that population, and thereafter administer the third dose, starting in the oldest age groups.

 

The global COVID-19 vaccination strategy
:: The global COVID-19 vaccination strategy, previously reviewed by SAGE, provides the goals, the resource requirements, and describes the expected outcomes underlying the vaccination targets set for the end of 2021 and mid-2022.
:: Drawing on SAGE’s June 2021 recommendation and advancing it, given the progression of the
pandemic, the strategy prioritizes vaccination of high-risk populations and all adults and fully commits to the risk mitigation approach by calling for 70% of the world’s population fully vaccinated by mid-2022.
:: The strategy acknowledges the scientific uncertainties and the need for updates as new evidence becomes available.
:: SAGE noted that success in achieving the goals and interim targets of the strategy will require the collective and cohesive actions of all relevant stakeholders.

 

The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine
:: In a joint session, SAGE and the Malaria Policy Advisory Group (MPAG) reviewed the evidence on the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine and recommended that the vaccine be used for the prevention of P. falciparum malaria in children living in regions with moderate to high transmission as defined by WHO.
:: The vaccine should be provided in a schedule of 4 doses in children from the age of 5 months to reduce the burden of malaria.
:: Drawing from a growing body of evidence, countries may consider providing the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine seasonally, with a 5-dose strategy in areas with highly seasonal malaria or areas with perennial malaria transmission with seasonal peaks. When countries choose the seasonal deployment of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine, they are strongly encouraged to document their experience, including the vaccine effectiveness, feasibility, and occurrence of any adverse
events, to feed into future guidance updates.
:: RTS,S/AS01 introduction should be considered in the context of comprehensive national malaria control plans.
:: The recommendation is based on results from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi that has vaccinated more than 800 000 children since 2019. The evaluation results show that the vaccine has a favourable safety profile, is effective, and led to a substantial reduction in life-threatening severe malaria, even in settings with good coverage with insecticide treated nets, and access to treatment.
:: The pilot programme also showed that there is high demand for the vaccine, and that it can be delivered effectively through the routine child immunization programmes without affecting the uptake of other vaccines or malaria interventions. Because of its high uptake and coverage, the vaccine has been able to reach vulnerable children who are currently not protected by other
malaria control interventions.

 

Influenza vaccines
:: Influenza causes an estimated > 1 bn cases of infection, including 3-5 million episodes of severe disease and 290,000 – 650,000 deaths annually.
:: SAGE recommends that all countries consider implementing seasonal influenza vaccination based on the burden and epidemiology of disease, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination, competing public health priorities, and programmatic feasibility.
:: For countries considering the initiation or expansion of programmes for seasonal influenza vaccination, SAGE recommended that the following target groups should be considered for vaccination in no particular order of priority: health workers, individuals with specific chronic medical conditions, older adults and pregnant women.
:: Countries may consider additional (sub)populations for vaccination such as children and individuals at high risk of severe influenza living in congregate-living setting such as prisons, long-term care facilities, refugee camps, asylum seekers and group homes.
:: Vaccination in the current and prior season afforded better protection than not being vaccinated or being vaccinated in the prior season only, although protection from vaccination in the current and prior season was attenuated, particularly for the H3N2 sub-type, when compared with vaccination in the current season alone. SAGE continues to recommend annual seasonal influenza vaccination for the priority target groups.
:: Limited evidence on co-administration of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines with COVID-19 vaccines showed no increased adverse events. Since the adult age groups targeted for seasonal influenza vaccination are also at risk for developing severe COVID-19, co-administration of an inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine and any WHO emergency use listed COVID-19 vaccine is acceptable and will maximize the uptake of both vaccines.
:: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, SAGE continues to recommend the prioritization of health workers and older adults as target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, and countries should also consider prioritization of pregnant women

 

Behavioural and social drivers of vaccine uptake
:: New evidence, tools, and guidance on ‘Behavioural and social drivers (BeSD) of vaccine uptake’ to support programmes to assess and address reasons for under-vaccination were presented to SAGE.
:: SAGE recognized the importance for measuring factors contribute to low uptake and took note of the evidence-informed framework for measuring behavioural and social drivers.
:: SAGE recommended the systematic gathering and use of data on BeSD to assess the reasons for low uptake, periodic monitoring of trends.

 

Hepatitis E vaccine
:: SAGE highlighted the importance of the hepatitis E vaccination to mitigate the impact of outbreaks with the principal aim of protecting pregnant women and noted that those most affected by hepatitis E are underprivileged populations in low-resource settings.
:: SAGE encouraged manufacturers to proceed as quickly as possible with seeking WHO prequalification, this should not preclude the use of the vaccine prior to pre-qualification.
:: SAGE encouraged the continued coordination between key stakeholders and recommended that WHO work with Gavi for inclusion of hepatitis E vaccination for outbreak response and hepatitis E surveillance and diagnostics within its portfolio of support to eligible countries.

Global tuberculosis report 2021

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

TB

Global tuberculosis report 2021
14 October 2021  |
WHO Report :: 57 pages
PDF: https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1379788/retrieve
Overview
Each year, the WHO Global TB Report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic, and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease, at global, regional and country levels. This is done in the context of global TB commitments, strategies and targets.
The 2021 edition of the report has been produced in a new and more web-centric format. This is designed to make the content available in smaller (more “bite-sized”) chunks that are easier to read, digest, navigate and use. There is a short and slim report PDF with 30 pages of main content plus six short annexes. This is accompanied by expanded and more detailed digital content on web pages. The total amount of content remains similar to that of previous years.
Please note that direct comparisons between estimates of TB disease burden in the latest report and previous reports are not appropriate. The most recent time-series of estimates are published in this global TB report.
Global TB reports from previous years can be found here.

 

Top findings and messages in the 2021 report
The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed years of progress in providing essential TB services and reducing TB disease burden. Global TB targets are mostly off-track, although there are some country and regional success stories.

The most obvious impact is a large global drop in the number of people newly diagnosed with TB and reported. This fell from 7.1 million in 2019 to 5.8 million in 2020, an 18% decline back to the level of 2012 and far short of the approximately 10 million people who developed TB in 2020. 16 countries accounted for 93% of this reduction, with India, Indonesia and the Philippines the worst affected. Provisional data up to June 2021 show ongoing shortfalls.

Reduced access to TB diagnosis and treatment has resulted in an increase in TB deaths. Best estimates for 2020 are 1.3 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people (up from 1.2 million in 2019) and an additional 214 000 among HIV-positive peoplea (up from 209 000 in 2019), with the combined total back to the level of 2017. Declines in TB incidence (the number of people developing TB each year) achieved in previous years have slowed almost to a halt. These impacts are forecast to be much worse in 2021 and 2022.

Other impacts include reductions between 2019 and 2020 in the number of people provided with treatment for drug-resistant TB (-15%, from 177 100 to 150 359, about 1 in 3 of those in need) and TB preventive treatment (-21%, from 3.6 million to 2.8 million), and a fall in global spending on TB diagnostic, treatment and prevention services (from US$ 5.8 billion to US$ 5.3 billion, less than half of what is needed).

Actions to mitigate and reverse these impacts are urgently required. The immediate priority is to restore access to and provision of essential TB services such that levels of TB case detection and treatment can recover to at least 2019 levels, especially in the most badly-affected countries.
a Officially classified as deaths from HIV/AIDS.

Tuberculosis deaths rise for the first time in more than a decade due to the COVID-19 pandemic
14 October 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed years of global progress in tackling tuberculosis and for the first time in over a decade, TB deaths have increased, according to the World Health Organization’s 2021 Global TB report.

In 2020, more people died from TB, with far fewer people being diagnosed and treated or provided with TB preventive treatment compared with 2019, and overall spending on essential TB services falling.

“This report confirms our fears that the disruption of essential health services due to the pandemic could start to unravel years of progress against tuberculosis,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “This is alarming news that must serve as a global wake-up call to the urgent need for investments and innovation to close the gaps in diagnosis, treatment and care for the millions of people affected by this ancient but preventable and treatable disease.”…

The increase in the number of TB deaths occurred mainly in the 30 countries with the highest burden of TB[1]. WHO modelling projections suggest the number of people developing TB and dying from the disease could be much higher in 2021 and 2022…

WHO estimates that some 4.1 million people currently suffer from TB but have not been diagnosed with the disease or have not officially reported to national authorities. This figure is up from 2.9 million in 2019…

WHO Announces Proposed Members of its Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO)

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WHO Announces Proposed Members of its Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO)
13 October 2021
Following a public call for experts, the World Health Organization (WHO) today announced proposed members of the WHO Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO). The SAGO will advise WHO on the development of a global framework to define and guide studies into the origins of emerging and re-emerging pathogens of epidemic and pandemic potential, including SARS-CoV-2.

“The emergence of new viruses with the potential to spark epidemics and pandemics is a fact of nature, and while SARS-CoV-2 is the latest such virus, it will not be the last,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “Understanding where new pathogens come from is essential for preventing future outbreaks with epidemic and pandemic potential, and requires a broad range of expertise. We are very pleased with the calibre of experts selected for SAGO from around the world, and look forward to working with them to make the world safer.”

 

Selected from more than 700 applications, the 26 proposed SAGO members have expertise in a range of areas, including epidemiology, animal health, ecology, clinical medicine, virology, genomics, molecular epidemiology, molecular biology, biology, food safety, biosafety, biosecurity, and public health. The composition of the SAGO reflects geographic and gender diversity.

As per WHO processes, there will now be a two-week public consultation period for WHO to receive feedback on the proposed SAGO members and set in place the modalities for the SAGO’s first meeting, which is planned to take place following this consultation period. The final membership to the SAGO is subject to the above-mentioned public consultation period and relevant WHO practices and procedures.

 

Functions of the SAGO 
In its capacity as an advisory body to WHO, the SAGO will have the following functions:
[1] To advise WHO on the development of a WHO global framework to define and guide studies into the origins of emerging and re-emerging pathogens of epidemic and pandemic potential;
[2] To advise WHO on prioritizing studies and field investigations into the origins of emerging and re-emerging pathogens of epidemic and pandemic potential, in accordance with the WHO global framework described in point (1) above;
1. To provide information and views to assist the WHO Secretariat in the development of a detailed
work plan of the SAGO;
2. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 origins:
– To provide the WHO Secretariat with an independent evaluation of all available scientific and
technical findings from global studies on the origins of SARS-CoV-2;
– To advise the WHO Secretariat regarding developing, monitoring and supporting the next series
of studies into the origins of SARS-CoV-2, including rapid advice on WHO’s operational plans to
implement the next series of global studies into the origins of SARS-CoV-2, as outlined in the
Joint WHO-China Global Study of Origins of SARS-CoV-2: China Part report published on 30
March 2021 and advise on additional studies as needed; and
3. To provide additional advice and support to WHO, as requested by the WHO SAGO Secretariat,
which may include participation in future WHO-international missions to study the origins of SARS-
CoV-2 or for other emerging pathogens.

Public notice of proposed new Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO) members
13 October 2021 Call for consultation
After careful consideration of all applications submitted to WHO, the following individuals are proposed for membership of the WHO Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO). They are to serve in their personal capacities to represent the broad range of disciplines relevant to emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In evaluating the applications submitted, consideration was given to attaining an adequate distribution of technical expertise, geographical representation and gender balance.
Mr Phillip Alviola is an Associate Professor at the Animal Biology Division at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines. He is originally from the Philippines.
Dr Abdullah Assiri is an Assistant Deputy Minister for Preventive Health at the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia.  He is originally from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Dr Stuart Blacksell is a Professor of Tropical Microbiology at the Nuffield Department of Medicine at the University of Oxford. He is originally from Australia.
Dr Inger Damon is the Director of the Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is originally from the United States of America.
Dr Vladimir Dedkov is the Deputy Director for Research at the Pasteur Institute in Russia. He is originally from Russia.
Dr Christian Drosten is a Professor and head of the Institute of Virology at Charité in Germany.  He is originally from Germany.
Dr Elmoubasher Farag is a senior infectious disease epidemiologist and the Head of the Communicable Diseases Control Programs at the Ministry of Public Health in Qatar. He is originally from Sudan.
Dr Thea Fischer is a Professor of virology at the University of Copenhagen and Head of Clinical Research at Nordsjaellands Hospital in Denmark. She is originally from Denmark.
Dr Raman Gangakhedkar is the Dr C.G. Pandit National Chair at the Indian Council of Medical Research in India. He is originally from India.
Dr Nada Ghosn is the head of the Epidemiology Surveillance Program and Medical officer for the Directorate of Prevention at the Ministry of Health, Lebanon. She is originally from Lebanon.
Dr Maria Guzman is the head of the Center for Research, Diagnostic and Reference at the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri in Cuba. She is originally from Cuba.
Dr Christian Happi is a Professor and director at the African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Disease (ACEGID), Redeemer’s University, Ede, Nigeria. He is originally from Cameroon.
Dr Marion Koopmans is a Professor and the head of the department of the Viroscience at Erasmus MC. She is originally from the Netherlands.
Dr Sowath Ly is the Deputy Head of Epidemiology and Public Health Unit at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge. He is originally from Cambodia.
Dr Jean-Claude Manuguerra is a research Research Director of the Environment and Infectious Risks Unit, as well as the head for the Emergency Biological Intervention Unit at the Institut Pasteur in France. He is originally from France.
Dr Khin Myint is the head of the Emerging Virus Research Unit at the Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology in Jakarta, Indonesia. She is originally from Myanmar.
Dr Carlos M. Morel is the Director at the Center for Technological Development in Health at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) and Ministry of Health in Brazil. He is originally from Brazil.
Dr Hung Nguyen-Viet is the co-program leader of Animal and Human Health Program at the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya. He is originally from Vietnam.
Dr Chinwe Ochu is the Director of the Prevention Programmes and Knowledge Management at the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. She is originally from Nigeria.
Dr Masayuki Saijo is the Director of the Medical Planning Department Sapporo City Health and Welfare Bureau in Sapporo, Japan. He is originally from Japan.
Dr Rosemary Sang is an advisor and Chief Research Officer at the Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kenya. She is originally from Kenya.
Dr Katharina Summermatter is the head of the Biosafety Center and Managing Director of the Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory at the Institute for Infectious Diseases at the University of Berne in Switzerland. She is originally from Switzerland.
Dr Marietjie Venter is a Professor of the Zoonotic Arbovirus and Respiratory Virus Research Programme at the Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology at the University of Pretoria in South Africa. She is originally from South Africa.
Dr Supaporn Wacharapluesadee is a researcher at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, The Thai Red Cross Society and a committee member of Chula School of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. She is originally from Thailand.
Dr John Watson is an Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, as well as a Visiting Professor in the Research Department of Infection and Population Health at the University College of London. He is originally from the United Kingdom.
Dr Yungui Yang is the Deputy Director at the Beijing Institute of Genomics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China. He is originally from China.
Pursuant to WHO’s rules and practices, and in order to enhance WHO’s management of conflicts of interest, as well as strengthen public trust and transparency in connection with WHO advisory groups involving the provision of technical advice, the names and brief biographies of the individuals selected for SAGO Membership are now disclosed for public notice and comment. Should you wish to comment on any of the individuals, please send your comment to SAGO@who.int  with subject, “Public comments on SAGO members” by 27 October 2021.

Vaccinating poorer countries is vital to the recovery

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Editor’s Note:
We will selectively include opinion and analysis from major media sources as below, recognizing the continuing extraordinary volume of COVID coverage globally.

 

Financial Times
October 12, 2021
Opinion The FT View
Vaccinating poorer countries is vital to the recovery
IMF warns uneven pace of immunisation raises risks of economic scarring
The FT editorial board
[Editor’s text bolding]
It would be hard to find an example of a government intervention that has done more good than vaccination efforts against coronavirus. As well as the obvious health benefits, immunising as many people as possible — starting with the most vulnerable — has allowed economies to unlock, workers to return to offices and emergency support measures to wind down. That has helped to produce an economic bounceback in the rich world that has more than paid off the amount invested in vaccinations.

Yet as the IMF points out in its World Economic Outlook, published on Tuesday to coincide with the Fund and the World Bank’s annual meetings in Washington, vaccination efforts are shockingly uneven. That will hold back the global economic recovery: poorer countries will lag even further behind rich ones that have also been better able to use fiscal and monetary stimulus to support their economies. It is imperative now that rich countries make good on their promises to donate vaccines to the Covax initiative, which aims to ensure equitable global access. They should also lean on drugs companies to do their part in ensuring poorer countries gain access to life-saving jabs.

The IMF warns that the momentum behind the global recovery has faded. It rightly notes current supply chain disruptions underline the need for central banks to be “very, very vigilant” over spiralling inflation expectations getting out of hand. But it identifies the fundamental problem as “the continued grip of the pandemic on global society”. Not only is this holding back the recovery in international services trade such as tourism, and contact-heavy activities such as hospitality; it is also contributing to the supply chain troubles as coronavirus outbreaks have led to factory shutdowns. Global co-operation to immunise the developing world, then, is not only a humanitarian good but in rich countries’ self-interest.

However, only about a fifth of the 850m doses pledged by G7 countries to Covax in June had been delivered by September. It is understandable that governments were reluctant to give away scarce vaccines earlier this year when rich countries themselves were bitterly divided over exporting them to one another. But given the success of rollouts to date, it is now largely vaccine hesitancy rather than supply issues that is holding back take-up among those still unjabbed in rich countries. Now that economies are reopening, export controls should also be eased on medical equipment.

The pace of vaccinations is one of the biggest influences on the IMF’s estimates of “medium term scarring” from the pandemic. While, in aggregate, rich economies are expected to be 0.9 per cent bigger than before the pandemic by 2024, poorer countries, excluding China, are expected still to be 5.5 per cent smaller — undoing much of the poverty reduction over the past decade. The US, thanks to extraordinary stimulus efforts, is expected to have “negative scarring” as Covid-19 accelerated efforts to renew infrastructure, as well as the green transition.

Vaccine manufacturers, too, have a duty to do more to increase access to their products and lower the cost. While Moderna and BioNTech, which produces a vaccine with Pfizer, have both pledged to move production to Africa, details are still scant and it will take time for such production to come online. As the IMF points out, the longer the pandemic continues, the less able countries will be to keep on spending to offset the continued economic harm. Rich countries got a head start in the race to vaccinate; now, in everybody’s interest, they must redouble their efforts to help others catch up.

WTO -TRIPS

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WTO -TRIPS

Members pursue convergence for an IP COVID-19 response
World Trade Organization
14 October 2021
At a meeting of the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on 13-14 October 2021, WTO members noted encouraging exchanges at recent small group discussions and bilateral meetings which helped to identify points of convergence on how to provide a common intellectual property (IP) response to COVID-19. The chair of the TRIPS Council, Ambassador Dagfinn Sørli of Norway, announced he would continue to consult with members on how to move towards a consensus before the WTO’s 12th Ministerial Conference (MC12), to be held on 30 November — 3 December

Members appreciated the opportunities provided by recent small group and bilateral meetings to discuss issues related to the scope and implementation of the revised TRIPS waiver proposal first put forward by South Africa and India (IP/C/W/669/Rev.1) as well as the proposal for a draft General Council Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health in the circumstances of a pandemic (IP/C/W/681) from the European Union, particularly with regards the use of current TRIPS compulsory licensing provisions.

Some delegations said that the results of those discussions were “encouraging” and helped to identify “important points of convergence”. Others said that further conversations that move the TRIPS Council towards evidence-based and pragmatic solutions should be the next step guiding their discussions at this critical juncture, with only seven weeks left before MC12.

Co-sponsors of the TRIPS waiver proposal reiterated that this initiative should be an integral part of any successful MC12 outcome and urged members to move beyond the binary approach between the two proposals on the table and engage constructively to secure consensus. Members also underlined the importance of aligning the facilitation process under Ambassador David Walker of New Zealand and the work by the TRIPS Council chair, so that a comprehensive package on trade and health leading to a multilateral and horizontal response to the COVID-19 pandemic can be achieved.

Some members noted the consensus-based nature of the WTO and the complexity of the issues involved, and flagged the risk of not achieving an outcome unless delegations are able to make some real compromises. A positive and meaningful outcome at MC12 on the IP response to the pandemic would not only send a powerful message of global solidarity, but would also be proof that the WTO has the ability to respond to a major global crisis, these members added…

Members noted the WTO Secretariat’s updated compilation “COVID-19: Measures Regarding Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights” that is available on the WTO website. This non-exhaustive list, compiled from official sources, represents an informal situation report and an attempt to provide transparency with respect to measures related to intellectual property rights taken in the COVID-19 context. The chair stressed that the list is updated continuously, even if the rate at which new measures are brought to the Secretariat’s attention is slowing down…

COVID Vaccines – OCHA:: HDX

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COVID Vaccines – OCHA:: HDX

COVID-19 Data Explorer: Global Humanitarian Operations
COVID-19 Vaccine Roll-out
16 Oct 2021 | COVAX (WHO,GAVI,CEPI), UNDESA, Press Reports | DATA
Global COVID-19 Figures: 239M total confirmed cases; 4.9M total confirmed deaths
Global vaccines administered: 6.64B
Number of Countries: 29 [29 week ago]
COVAX Allocations Round 4-6 (Number of Doses): 120M [120M week ago]
COVAX Delivered (Number of Doses): 110M [98M week ago]
Other Delivered (Number of Doses): 190M [160M week ago]
Total Delivered (Number of Doses): 300M [260M week ago]
Total Administered (Number of Doses): 240M [230M week ago]

World Bank Vaccine Operations Portal

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World Bank Vaccine Operations Portal
https://www.worldbank.org/en/who-we-are/news/coronavirus-covid19/world-bank-support-for-country-access-to-covid-19-vaccines
As of October 8, 2021, the World Bank approved operations to support vaccine rollout in 61 countries amounting to $5.8 billion. See the latest project financing, project documents and procurement information in the list here. More information will be shared here as it becomes available. 

Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19 [IMF, World Bank Group, WHO, WTO]

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19 [IMF, World Bank Group, WHO, WTO]
A joint initiative from the International Monetary Fund, World Bank Group, World Health Organization, and World Trade Organization to accelerate access to COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics by leveraging multilateral finance and trade solutions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Website accessed 16 Oct 2021: https://data.covid19taskforce.com/data The global view below is complemented by country-specific dashboards here.

Coronavirus [COVID-19] – WHOPublic Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

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::::::

 

Coronavirus [COVID-19] – WHO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

 

Weekly Epidemiological and Operational updates
Last update: 16 Oct 2021
Confirmed cases :: 239 437 517 [236 599 025 week ago]
Confirmed deaths :: 4 879 235 [4 831 486 week ago]
Vaccine doses administered: 6 495 672 0 32 [ 6 262 445 422 week ago]

 

:::::::

Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 – 13 October 2021
Overview
Globally, the numbers of weekly COVID-19 cases and deaths has continued to decline since late August. Over 2.8 million new cases and over 46 000 new deaths were reported during the week of 4 to 10 October 2021, representing a 7% and 10% decrease respectively, as compared to the previous week. Apart from the European Region, which reported a 7% increase in new weekly cases, all the other regions reported a decline. The largest decrease in new weekly cases was reported from the African Region (32%), followed by the Western Pacific Region (26%). The cumulative number of confirmed cases reported globally is now over 237 million and the cumulative number of deaths is over 4.8 million.
The number of new weekly deaths reported, showed a large (>10%) decline for all regions except for the European Region, which reported an increase of 11% as compared to the previous week. The largest decline in weekly deaths was reported from the Western Pacific and the African Regions, with both showing a 34% decline as compared to the previous week.
In this edition, we provide an update on SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOCs) Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta along with their geographical distribution.

Status of COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process 29 September 2021

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Status of COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process 29 September 2021
For 23 vaccine candidates, presents Manufacturer, Name of Vaccine, NRA of Record, Platform, EOI Accepted Status, Pre-submission Meeting Held Status, Dossier Accepted for Review, Status of Assessment; Anticipated/Completed Decision Date

[Full scale view available at title ling above]

 

::::::

COVID Vaccine Developer/Manufacturer Announcements
[relevant press releases/announcement from organizations from WHO EUL/PQ listing above]

 

AstraZeneca
Press Releases
AZD7442 reduced risk of developing severe COVID-19 or death in TACKLE Phase III outpatient treatment trial
11 October 2021
:: Trial met primary endpoint
:: AZD7442 is the only long-acting antibody combination shown to both prevent and treat COVID-19

BioCubaFarma – Cuba
Últimas Noticias – [Website not responding at inquiry; receiving 403-Forbidden]

 

CanSinoBIO
News – [Website not responding at inquiry]

Clover Biopharmaceuticals – China
News – No new digest announcements identified

 

Curevac [Bayer Ag – Germany]
News
CureVac to Shift Focus of COVID-19 Vaccine Development to Second-Generation mRNA Technology
October 12, 2021
:: COVID-19 vaccine efforts to be re-allocated to accelerate the development of second-generation program in collaboration with GSK
:: First-generation vaccine candidate, CVnCoV, to be withdrawn from regulatory review due to potential overlap with approval timelines for a second-generation candidate

 

Gamaleya National Center
Latest News and Events – No new digest announcements identified [See Russia/RFID below]

IMBCAMS, China
Home – No new digest announcements identified

 

Janssen/JNJ
Press Releases
Oct 15, 2021 United States
Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Shot Unanimously Recommended for Emergency Use Authorization by U.S. FDA Advisory Committee
:: Recommendation informed by Phase 3 findings showing a booster increased protection to 94 percent against moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 in the U.S.
:: Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, when given as a booster or primary dose, was generally well-tolerated
:: FDA to decide whether to authorize a booster dose in the coming days

 

Moderna
Press Releases
October 14, 2021
Moderna Announces FDA Advisory Committee Unanimously Votes in Support of Emergency Use for a Booster Dose of Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine in the U.S.
:: Positive unanimous vote for mRNA-1273 booster at the 50 µg dose level for individuals aged 65 and older as well as individuals aged 18 through 64 at high risk of contracting COVID-19 at least 6 months after completion of the primary series
:: Company estimates that booster at the 50 µg dose level could result in up to 1 billion additional doses

October 12, 2021
Moderna Announces COVAX Exercises Option to Purchase 176.5 Million Additional Doses of Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine for Low Income Countries in First Half of 2022

 

Novavax
Press Releases
Complete PREVENT-19 Phase 3 Clinical Trial Results Manuscript for COVID-19 Vaccine Posted to medRxiv Oct 11, 2021 [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.05.21264567v1 ]

 

Pfizer
Recent Press Releases – No new digest announcements identified

 

Sanofi Pasteur
Press Releases
Update from Sanofi regarding Kevzara® (sarilumab): Supply constraints anticipated until early 2022
October 12, 2021
:: Sanofi is currently experiencing an increase in worldwide demand for sarilumab (Kevzara®) due to an increase in the global demand for IL-6 receptor blockers and the temporary tocilizumab shortage.1
:: Due to this exceptional demand, supply for all four formats of sarilumab (150mg or 200mg pre-filled syringe or auto-injector) is expected to be constrained until early 2022 based on current forecasts.
:: Various country and global health authorities have recommended IL-6 receptor blockers for the treatment of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. Sarilumab is not approved or authorized for emergency use for the treatment of COVID-19 anywhere in the world, and Sanofi will continue to prioritize access for indicated patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
:: Sanofi is working diligently to manage supply to minimize the impact of this increase in demand, and we are committed to proactive and timely communication as the situation evolves.

 

Serum Institute of India
NEWS & ANNOUNCEMENTS – No new digest announcements identified

 

Sinopharm/WIBPBIBP
News – No new digest announcements identified

 

Sinovac
Press Releases – No new digest announcements identified

 

Vector State Research Centre of Viralogy and Biotechnology
Home – No new digest announcements identified

Zhifei Longcom, China
[Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biologic Pharmacy Co., Ltd.]
[No website identified]

 

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GSK
Press releases for media – No new digest announcements identified

 

Merck
News releases
Merck Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for VAXNEUVANCE™ (Pneumococcal 15-valent Conjugate Vaccine) in Individuals 18 Years of Age and Older
October 15, 2021

Merck and Ridgeback Announce Submission of Emergency Use Authorization Application to the U.S. FDA for Molnupiravir, an Investigational Oral Antiviral Medicine, for the Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 in At Risk Adults
October 15, 2021

 

SK Biosciences
Press releases – No new digest announcements identified

Duke – Launch and Scale Speedometer

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Duke – Launch and Scale Speedometer
The Race for Global COVID-19 Vaccine Equity
A flurry of nearly 200 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are moving forward through the development and clinical trials processes at unprecedented speed; more than ten candidates are already in Phase 3 large-scale trials and several have received emergency or limited authorization. Our team has aggregated and analyzed publicly available data to track the flow of procurement and manufacturing and better understand global equity challenges. We developed a data framework of relevant variables and conducted desk research of publicly available information to identify COVID vaccine candidates and status, deals and ongoing negotiations for procurement and manufacturing, COVID burden by country, and allocation and distribution plans. We have also conducted interviews with public officials in key countries to better understand the context and challenges facing vaccine allocation and distribution
[accessed 24 July 2021]
See our COVID Vaccine Purchases research
See our COVID Vaccine Manufacturing research
See our COVID Vaccine Donations & Exports research

 

 

Global Dashboard on COVID-19 Vaccine Equity

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Global Dashboard on COVID-19 Vaccine Equity
The Dashboard is a joint initiative of UNDP, WHO and the University of Oxford with cooperation across the UN system, anchored in the SDG 3 Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All.

Dashboard on Vaccine Equity [accessed 16 Oct 2021]: https://data.undp.org/vaccine-equity/
See also visualization on Vaccine Access and Vaccine Affordability

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations [Accessed 16 Oct 2021]

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Our World in Data
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations [Accessed 16 Oct 2021]
:: 47.4% of the world population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.
:: 6.64 billion doses have been administered globally, and 21.41 million are now administered each day.
:: Only 2.7% of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose.

White House [U.S.]

White House [U.S.]
Briefing Room – Selected Major COVID Announcements
Remarks by President Biden on the COVID-⁠19 Response and Vaccination Program
October 14, 2021 • Speeches and Remarks

Statement by National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan on the Global Health Security Agenda Annual Report
October 14, 2021 • Statements and Releases
Today, we are releasing the annual report, “Strengthening Health Security Across the Globe: Progress and Impact of United States Government Investments in the Global Health Security Agenda,” which details our progress and impact helping countries build health security capacity through the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in fiscal year 2020. We are bringing a whole-of-government effort to address global health as a national security imperative, and this report describes how GHSA investments have been critical in advancing the COVID-19 response, and outlines our strategic approach for assisting countries to meet specific targets…
Strengthening Health Security Across the Globe: Progress and Impact of United States Government Investments in the Global Health Security Agenda
Global Health Security Agenda – 2020 Annual Report :: 34 pages

Press Briefing by White House COVID-⁠19 Response Team and Public Health Officials
October 13, 2021 • Press Briefings

Europe: COVID-19 Vaccines – Announcements/Regulatory Actions/Deployment

Europe: COVID-19 Vaccines – Announcements/Regulatory Actions/Deployment

 

 

European Medicines Agency
News & Press Releases
News: Meeting highlights from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) 11-14 October 2021 (new)
CHMP, Last updated: 15/10/2021

 

 

News: EMA starts rolling review of Evusheld (tixagevimab and cilgavimab) (new)
CHMP, Last updated: 14/10/2021

 

 

News: EMA ends rolling review of CVnCoV COVID-19 vaccine following withdrawal by CureVac AG (new)
Last updated: 12/10/2021

 

 

News: EMA receives application for marketing authorisation for Ronapreve (casirivimab / imdevimab) for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 (new)
CHMP, PDCO, PRAC, Last updated: 11/10/2021

 

 

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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en
Latest Updates
News
ECDC supports Member States to increase COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and uptake in the EU/EEA
News story – 15 Oct 2021

Publication
Facilitating COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and uptake in the EU/EEA
Technical report – 15 Oct 2021

 

 

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Accessed 16 Oct 2021
https://vaccinetracker.ecdc.europa.eu/public/extensions/COVID-19/vaccine-tracker.html#uptake-tab

 

 

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European Commission
https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/home/en
Press release 12 October 2021
Afghanistan: Commission announces €1 billion Afghan support package
During the G20 meeting on Afghanistan, President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, will announce a support package worth around €1 billion for the Afghan people and neighbouring countries, addressing the urgent needs in the country and the region.

Press release 11 October 2021
EU announces vital €92 million contribution in support of UNRWA’s operations
The European Union has disbursed an essential payment of €92 million to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA).

Questions and answers 11 October 2021
Questions and Answers: Proposal to amend EU Budget for 2021 to support global vaccination and funding for global emergencies.
… What is Draft Amending Budget 6 about? 
Draft Amending Budget 6 is about providing additional support to policy areas, which need reinforcement in view of recent developments and additional needs.
More concretely, with the additional funds that Draft Amending Budget 6 will provide, the EU will be able to help speed up global vaccinations, ensure funding for global emergencies like repatriation flights from Afghanistan, reinforce the EU response to the disasters in Haiti and outstanding operations including fighting forest fires and address other pending issues.
Why is the Commission proposing to reinforce the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument?
With less than 1% of global doses of vaccine for COVID-19 having been administered in low and lower-middle income countries, there is a clear and pressing need to speed up global vaccinations. The EU has already committed to share 250 million doses and stands ready to provide an additional 200 million doses to low and middle income countries through COVAX, at the latest by mid-2022. To secure these extra doses, a total of €1.3 billion will be needed. Of this total amount, €850 million are already available within existing EU budget instruments. The Draft Amending Budget 6 will provide the additional €450 million that are still needed to reach the full €1.3 billion. This is possible by mobilising the EU Flexibility Instrument, which is specifically designed to provide funding for new or unforeseen policy developments…

Africa: COVID-19 – Announcements/Regulatory Actions/Deployment

Africa: COVID-19 – Announcements/Regulatory Actions/Deployment

Accesses 16 Oct 2021. Full scale, interactive dashboard available at:
https://africacdc.org/covid-19-vaccination/

Six in seven COVID-19 infections go undetected in Africa
Brazzaville, 14 October 2021 – A new assessment by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that only 14.2% – or one in seven – COVID-19 infections are being detected in Africa. To reverse that trend and curb transmission, the WHO Regional Office for Africa today announced a new initiative to enhance community screening for COVID-19 in eight countries. The programme aims to reach more than 7 million people with rapid diagnostic tests in the next year…