Methodologic approaches in studies using real-world data to measure pediatric safety and effectiveness of vaccines administered to pregnant women: a scoping review protocol

JBI Database of Systematic Review and Implementation Reports
October 2020 – Volume 18 – Issue 10
https://journals.lww.com/jbisrir/Pages/currenttoc.aspx

 

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PROTOCOLS
Methodologic approaches in studies using real-world data to measure pediatric safety and effectiveness of vaccines administered to pregnant women: a scoping review protocol
Lasky, Tamar; McMahon, Ann W.; Hua, Wei; More
JBI Evidence Synthesis. 18(10):2164-2170, October 2020.

Public spending on orphan medicines: a review of the literature

Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://joppp.biomedcentral.com/
[Accessed 17 Oct 2020]

 

Public spending on orphan medicines: a review of the literature
Little is known about how much public payers spend on orphan medicines. This study aimed at identifying information on orphan medicine expenditure incurred by public payers that was published in literature globally and at possibly synthesising their shares as portion of the total pharmaceutical expenditure.
Authors: Margit Gombocz and Sabine Vogler
Content type: Research
13 October 2020

Global health: time for radical change?

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Editorial
Global health: time for radical change?
The Lancet
What strategies should governments adopt to improve the health of their citizens? Amid the COVID-19 syndemic it would be easy to focus attention on global health security—at a minimum, strong public health and health-care systems. WHO has based its global health strategy on three pillars: universal health coverage, health emergencies, and better health and wellbeing. The indispensable elements of robust public health and health care are well known and endlessly rehearsed—a capable health workforce; effective, safe, and high-quality service delivery; health information systems; access to essential medicines; sufficient financing; and good governance. But has the gaze of global health been too narrow? Have health leaders and advocates been missing the most important determinants of human health?

The latest report of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 raises uncomfortable questions about the direction global health has taken in the 21st century. On the one hand, the news seems good. The health of the world’s population is steadily improving. Global life expectancy at birth increased from 67·2 years in 2000 to 73·5 years in 2019. Healthy life expectancy has increased in 202 of 204 countries and territories. In 21 countries, healthy life expectancy at birth increased by more than 10 years between 1990 and 2019, with gains of up to 19·1 years. The estimated number of deaths in children under 5 years decreased from 9·6 million in 2000 to 5 million in 2019. Indeed, the falls in rates of age-standardised disability-adjusted life-years since 1990 have been the largest for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases—and progress has been fastest in the past decade.

But GBD also reveals, once again, that health depends on more than health systems. The strong correlation between health and the socio-demographic index—a summary metric of a country’s overall development based on average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility rates—suggests that the health sector should consider redefining its scope of concern.

GBD 2019 also offers a revised theory of the demographic transition, delineating seven separate stages. A particular innovation is the idea of late-transition and post-transition stages, disaggregated for migration status. 35 countries, largely in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, are in mid-transition, with falling birth and death rates (as of 2019, no countries were in the pre-transition stage). Countries such as Brazil, China, and the USA are in the late-transition stage, with death rates plateauing, while birth rates continue to decrease. The final post-transition stage is when the birth rate is lower than the death rate and natural population growth is negative—as seen in Japan, Italy, and Russia. An important and overlooked influence on these demographic stages is migration. 17 countries, including Spain, Greece, and many eastern European countries, are in “a precarious state”—in the post-transition stage, with net emigration. Here, policies are needed to lessen the social and economic effects of an increasingly inverted population pyramid—encouraging immigration could be one way to help.
None of these arguments should suggest that universal health coverage and global health security are irrelevant to health. As the GBD 2019 authors argue, some countries have longer life expectancies than their stage of development would predict. These overperforming nations—such as Niger, Ethiopia, Portugal, and Spain—probably have superior public health and health-care policies. What GBD 2019 does suggest is that the global health community needs to radically rethink its vision. An exclusive focus on health care is a mistake. Health is created from a broader prospectus that includes the quality of education (primary to tertiary), economic growth, gender equality, and migration policy.

This conclusion is immediately relevant to national strategies to address COVID-19. Although attention should be given to controlling community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and protecting those most vulnerable to its consequences, success will require a more capacious strategy. COVID-19 is a syndemic of coronavirus infection combined with an epidemic of non-communicable diseases, both interacting on a social substrate of poverty and inequality. The message of GBD is that unless deeply embedded structural inequities in society are tackled and unless a more liberal approach to immigration policies is adopted, communities will not be protected from future infectious outbreaks and population health will not achieve the gains that global health advocates seek. It’s time for the global health community to change direction.

Five insights from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Viewpoint
Five insights from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
GBD 2019 Viewpoint Collaborators
Summary
The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Because GBD is highly standardised and comprehensive, spanning both fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and uses a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of hierarchical disease and injury causes, the study provides a powerful basis for detailed and broad insights on global health trends and emerging challenges. GBD 2019 incorporates data from 281 586 sources and provides more than 3·5 billion estimates of health outcome and health system measures of interest for global, national, and subnational policy dialogue. All GBD estimates are publicly available and adhere to the Guidelines on Accurate and Transparent Health Estimate Reporting. From this vast amount of information, five key insights that are important for health, social, and economic development strategies have been distilled. These insights are subject to the many limitations outlined in each of the component GBD capstone papers.

Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Global Health Metrics
Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
GBD 2019 Demographics Collaborators
Open Access

Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
GBD 2019 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators
Open Access

Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators
Open Access

Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Articles
Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
GBD 2019 Universal Health Coverage Collaborators
Open Access

Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

The Lancet
Oct 17, 2020 Volume 396 Number 10258 p1129-1306
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
Stein Emil Vollset, et al
Open Access

Curing COVID-19

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Oct 2020, Volume 20 Number 10 p1101-1216, e250-e283
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current

 

Editorial
Curing COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
As the COVID-19 pandemic moves into its 10th month, greater patient survival suggests that treatment of severe disease has improved. How much of this improvement is due to better supportive care and how much to pharmaceuticals is a matter of debate. Given the huge effort that the biomedical community has put into finding drugs to treat COVID-19, with thousands of trials completed and ongoing, it’s worth taking stock of the evidence for what has worked and what has not…

Vaccinology: time to change the paradigm?

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Oct 2020, Volume 20 Number 10 p1101-1216, e250-e283
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current

 

Personal View
Vaccinology: time to change the paradigm?
Christine Stabell Benn, Ane B Fisker, Andreas Rieckmann, Signe Sørup, Peter Aaby
Summary
The existing vaccine paradigm assumes that vaccines only protect against the target infection, that effective vaccines reduce mortality corresponding to the target infection’s share of total mortality, and that the effects of vaccines are similar for males and females. However, epidemiological vaccine research has generated observations that contradict these assumptions and suggest that vaccines have important non-specific effects on overall health in populations. These include the observations that several live vaccines reduce the incidence of all-cause mortality in vaccinated compared with unvaccinated populations far more than can be explained by protection against the target infections, and that several non-live vaccines are associated with increased all-cause mortality in females. In this Personal View we describe current observations and contradictions and define six emerging principles that might explain them. First, that live vaccines enhance resistance towards unrelated infections. Second, non-live vaccines enhance the susceptibility of girls to unrelated infections. Third, the most recently administered vaccination has the strongest non-specific effects. Fourth, combinations of live and non-live vaccines given together have variable non-specific health effects. Fifth, vaccinating children with live vaccines in the presence of maternal immunity enhances beneficial non-specific effects and reduces mortality. Finally, vaccines might interact with other co-administered health interventions, for example vitamin A supplementation. The potential implications for child health are substantial. For example, if BCG vaccination was given to children at birth, if higher measles vaccination coverage could be obtained, if diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccines were not given with or after measles vaccine, or if the BCG strain with the best non-specific effects could be used consistently, then child mortality could be considerably lower. Pursuing these emerging principles could improve our understanding and use of vaccines globally.

Patient-partnered clinical research

Nature Medicine
Volume 26 Issue 10, October 2020
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/26/issues/10

 

Patient-partnered clinical research
The path to productive collaboration between researchers and patients is not always easy, with language differences, knowledge gaps and power dynamics setting considerable barriers along the way. In this issue, we explore how patient- and community-led research is achievable if both sides make it a priority. The cover, designed by illustrator Sarah Lippett, a person living with a rare disease who explores her diagnostic odyssey in her work, shows how effective and equitable patient–researcher collaboration can be transformative to research.

Scientists, keep an open line of communication with the public

Nature Medicine
Volume 26 Issue 10, October 2020
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/26/issues/10

 

Editorial | 07 October 2020
Scientists, keep an open line of communication with the public
The COVID-19 pandemic has opened up a direct channel between scientists and the public. Keeping it open must become part of scientists’ mission.
aboration can be transformative to research.

Rare diseases band together toward change in research

Nature Medicine
Volume 26 Issue 10, October 2020
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/26/issues/10

 

News Feature | 07 October 2020
Rare diseases band together toward change in research
Patients with rare diseases, and the scientists who study those diseases, were long inhibited by geographic sparsity. But the social-media age has made it much easier for them to band together to leverage their experience and push forward change.
Claire Ainsworth

Patient groups and biomedicine: for better and for worse

Nature Medicine
Volume 26 Issue 10, October 2020
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/26/issues/10

 

News Feature | 07 October 2020
Patient groups and biomedicine: for better and for worse
In recent years, patient research groups have spurred culture shifts in biomedical research and governance, with many health experts lauding the benefit of these groups’ being embedded in the research process. Some, however, question private-sector influence in these groups’ newfound power.
John Zarocostas

The Human Cell Atlas and equity: lessons learned

Nature Medicine
Volume 26 Issue 10, October 2020
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/26/issues/10

 

Comment | 07 October 2020
The Human Cell Atlas and equity: lessons learned
The Human Cell Atlas has been undergoing a massive effort to support global scientific equity. The co-leaders of its Equity Working Group share some lessons learned in the process.
Partha P. Majumder, Musa M. Mhlanga & Alex K. Shalek

Audio Interview: Vaccinology and Covid-19

New England Journal of Medicine
October 15, 2020 Vol. 383 No. 16
http://www.nejm.org/toc/nejm/medical-journal

 

Editorials
Audio Interview: Vaccinology and Covid-19
Eric J. Rubin, M.D., Ph.D., Lindsey R. Baden, M.D., and Stephen Morrissey, Ph.D.
In this audio interview conducted on October 14, 2020, the editors discuss the fundamental concepts behind candidate vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and the status of ongoing clinical trials.

Risk of disease and willingness to vaccinate in the United States: A population-based survey

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 17 Oct 2020)

 

Research Article
Risk of disease and willingness to vaccinate in the United States: A population-based survey
Vaccination complacency occurs when perceived risks of vaccine-preventable diseases are sufficiently low so that vaccination is no longer perceived as a necessary precaution. Disease outbreaks can once again increase perceptions of risk, thereby decrease vaccine complacency, and in turn decrease vaccine hesitancy. It is not well understood, however, how change in perceived risk translates into change in vaccine hesitancy. We advance the concept of vaccine propensity, which relates a change in willingness to vaccinate with a change in perceived risk of infection—holding fixed other considerations such as vaccine confidence and convenience.
Bert Baumgaertner, Benjamin J. Ridenhour, Florian Justwan, Juliet E. Carlisle, Craig R. Miller
| published 15 Oct 2020 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003354

Using social media influencers to increase knowledge and positive attitudes toward the flu vaccine

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/

 

Research Article
Using social media influencers to increase knowledge and positive attitudes toward the flu vaccine
Erika Bonnevie, Sarah D. Rosenberg, Caitlin Kummeth, Jaclyn Goldbarg, Ellen Wartella, Joe Smyser
Research Article | published 16 Oct 2020 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240828

How confidence in health care systems affects mobility and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/

 

How confidence in health care systems affects mobility and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic
Ho Fai Chan, Martin Brumpton, Alison Macintyre, Jefferson Arapoc, David A. Savage, Ahmed Skali, David Stadelmann, Benno Torgler
Research Article | published 15 Oct 2020 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240644

Leave no child behind: Using data from 1.7 million children from 67 developing countries to measure inequality within and between groups of births and to identify left behind populations

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/

 

Leave no child behind: Using data from 1.7 million children from 67 developing countries to measure inequality within and between groups of births and to identify left behind populations
Antonio P. Ramos, Martin J. Flores, Robert E. Weiss
Research Article | published 14 Oct 2020 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238847

Validity and Reliability Assessment of Attitude Scales for Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Parents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.dovepress.com/risk-management-and-healthcare-policy-archive56
[Accessed 17 Oct 2020]

 

Original Research
Validity and Reliability Assessment of Attitude Scales for Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Parents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Huynh G, Pham DUB, Nguyen TV, Bui VQ, Nguyen TNH, Nguyen DD, Pham LA
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 2020, 13:2149-2158
Published Date: 14 October 2020

Ethical Questions Linked to Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs – A Systematic Review

Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.dovepress.com/risk-management-and-healthcare-policy-archive56
[Accessed 17 Oct 2020]

 

Original Research
Ethical Questions Linked to Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs – A Systematic Review
Kacetl J, Marešová P, Maskuriy R, Selamat A
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 2020, 13:2125-2148
Published Date: 13 October 2020
…The main findings reveal five main ethical issues. The most essential one shows that funding research and development in the field of orphan drugs poses an almost impossible dilemma. Other issues include the significance of non-economic values like compassion and beneficence in decision-making related to orphan drugs and rare diseases; the identification of limits to labelling diseases as rare; barriers to global, supranational and international cooperation; and last but not least, determining and establishing panels of decision-makers.
Conclusions: A strictly global approach would be the most appropriate way to deal with rare diseases. Nonetheless, international, let alone global, cooperation seems to be completely beyond the reach of the current international community, although the EU, for instance, has a centralized procedure for labelling orphan drugs. This deficit in international cooperation can be partly explained by the fact that the current technologically globalized world still lacks globally accepted ethical values and rules. This is further aggravated by unresolved international and intercultural conflicts. In addition, the sub-interests of various parties as well as the lack of desire to deal with other people’s problems need to be taken into account. The aforementioned problems are difficult to avoid. Nevertheless, let us be cautiously optimistic. At least, there are people who raise ethical questions about rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Not throwing away our shot

Science
16 October 2020 Vol 370, Issue 6514
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

 

Editorial
Not throwing away our shot
By H. Holden Thorp
Science16 Oct 2020 : 266
Summary
Over the past few weeks, prominent scientific publications have condemned President Donald Trump’s record on science. This is unprecedented. Although my predecessors at Science have always held elected U.S. officials accountable (but could not make a formal political endorsement because of the nonprofit status of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science), many of these publications are now clearly denouncing the U.S. president, administration, and federal agency leaders as the nation approaches a highly consequential presidential election. To paraphrase lyrics by Lin-Manuel Miranda in “Hamilton” about another set of political essays, why do we write like we’re running out of time? Because recent events show that the voice of the scientific community can lead to positive change.

COVID-19 in children and young people

Science
16 October 2020 Vol 370, Issue 6514
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

 

Perspectives
COVID-19 in children and young people
By Matthew D. Snape, Russell M. Viner
Science16 Oct 2020 : 286-288 Full Access
Children have a low risk of COVID-19 and are disproportionately harmed by precautions
Summary
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children and adolescents globally. Unusually for a respiratory viral infection, children and adolescents are at much lower risk from symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than any other age group. The near-global closure of schools in response to the pandemic reflected the reasonable expectation from previous respiratory virus outbreaks that children would be a key component of the transmission chain. However, emerging evidence suggests that this is most likely not the case. A minority of children experience a postinfectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. However, relative to their risk of contracting disease, children and adolescents have been disproportionately affected by lockdown measures, and advocates of child health need to ensure that children’s rights to health and social care, mental health support, and education are protected throughout subsequent pandemic waves.

COVID-19 treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: If the best is not available, the available becomes the best

Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Volume 37 September–October 2020
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/travel-medicine-and-infectious-disease/vol/37/suppl/C

 

Editorial Full text access
COVID-19 treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: If the best is not available, the available becomes the best
Jan H Dubbink, Tiago Martins Branco, Kelfala BB Kamara, James S Bangura, … Martin Peter Grobusch
Article 101878

Public health implications of Sabarimala mass gathering in India: A multi-dimensional analysis

Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Volume 37 September–October 2020
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/travel-medicine-and-infectious-disease/vol/37/suppl/C

 

Research article Abstract only
Public health implications of Sabarimala mass gathering in India: A multi-dimensional analysis
Kesavan Rajasekharan Nayar, Shaffi Fazaludeen Koya, K. Mohandas, Sabari Sivasankaran Nair, … Jinbert Lordson
Article 101783

Factors influencing the immune response after a single-dose 3-visit pre-exposure rabies intradermal vaccination schedule: A retrospective multivariate analysis

Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Volume 37 September–October 2020
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/travel-medicine-and-infectious-disease/vol/37/suppl/C

 

Research article Abstract only
Factors influencing the immune response after a single-dose 3-visit pre-exposure rabies intradermal vaccination schedule: A retrospective multivariate analysis
Benjamin Damanet, Diana Isabela Costescu Strachinaru, Mathias Van Nieuwenhove, Patrick Soentjens
Article 101867

Improving the quality and use of immunization and surveillance data: Summary report of the Working Group of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Conference info Open access
Improving the quality and use of immunization and surveillance data: Summary report of the Working Group of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization
Heather M. Scobie, Michael Edelstein, Edward Nicol, Ana Morice, … Jaleela Jawad
Pages 7183-7197

Interventions to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among migrants and refugees worldwide: A scoping review of published literature, 2006–2018

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Review article Abstract only
Interventions to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among migrants and refugees worldwide: A scoping review of published literature, 2006–2018
Nadia A. Charania, Nina Gaze, Janice Y. Kung, Stephanie Brooks

Parent, provider and vaccinee preferences for HPV vaccination: A systematic review of discrete choice experiments

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Review article Abstract only
Parent, provider and vaccinee preferences for HPV vaccination: A systematic review of discrete choice experiments
Alina Lack, Mickael Hiligsmann, Paul Bloem, Maike Tünneßen, Raymond Hutubess

Immunization governance: Mandatory immunization in 28 Global NITAG Network countries

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Research article Full text access
Immunization governance: Mandatory immunization in 28 Global NITAG Network countries
Shawn H.E. Harmon, David E. Faour, Noni E. MacDonald, Janice E. Graham, … Stephanie Shendale
Pages 7258-7267
Abstract
International trends currently favour greater use of mandatory immunization. There has been little academic consideration or comparison of the existence and scope of mandatory immunization internationally. In this paper, we examine mandatory immunization in 28 Global NITAG (National Immunization Technical Advisory Group) Network (GNN) countries, including countries from every WHO region and World Bank income level classification. We found that although mandatory immunization programs, or mandatory elements within broader immunization programs, are relatively common, jurisdictions vary significantly with respect to the immunizations required, population groups affected, grounds for exemptions, and penalties for non-compliance. We also observed some loose associations with geography and income level. Based on these data, we categorized policies into a spectrum ranging from Narrow to Broad scope.

The relationship between parental source of information and knowledge about measles / measles vaccine and vaccine hesitancy

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Research article Abstract only
The relationship between parental source of information and knowledge about measles / measles vaccine and vaccine hesitancy
Shai Ashkenazi, Gilat Livni, Adi Klein, Noa Kremer, … Oren Berkowitz

Comparison of immunization systems in Japan and the United States – What can be learned?

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 46 Pages 7183-7408 (27 October 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/46

 

Review article Abstract only
Comparison of immunization systems in Japan and the United States – What can be learned?
Tomohiro Katsuta, Charlotte A. Moser, Kristen A. Feemster, Akihiko Saitoh, Paul A. Offit
Pages 7401-7408

The Strange Case of BCG and COVID-19: The Verdict Is Still up in the Air

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 17 Oct 2020)

 

Open Access Perspective
The Strange Case of BCG and COVID-19: The Verdict Is Still up in the Air
by Radha Gopalaswamy, Natarajan Ganesan, Kalamani Velmurugan, Vivekanandhan Aravindhan and Selvakumar Subbian
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040612 – 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. In the absence of specific vaccines or therapeutics available, COVID-19 cases are managed empirically with the passive immunity approach and repurposing of drugs used for other conditions. Recently, a concept that bacilli Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination could confer protection against COVID-19 has emerged. The foundation for this widespread attention came from several recent articles, including the one by Miller et al. submitted to MedRxiv, a pre-print server. The authors of this article suggest that a correlation exists between countries with a prolonged national BCG vaccination program and the morbidity/mortality due to COVID-19. Further, clinical BCG vaccination trials are currently ongoing in the Netherlands, Australia, the UK, and Germany with the hope of reducing mortality due to COVID-19. Although BCG vaccination helps protect children against tuberculosis, experimental studies have shown that BCG can also elicit a non-specific immune response against viral and non-mycobacterial infections. Here, we summarize the pros and cons of BCG vaccination and critically analyze the evidence provided for the protective effect of BCG against COVID-19 and highlight the confounding factors in these studies

14-year-old Schoolchildren can Consent to Get Vaccinated in Tyrol, Austria: What do They know about Diseases and Vaccinations?

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 17 Oct 2020)

 

Open Access Article
14-year-old Schoolchildren can Consent to Get Vaccinated in Tyrol, Austria: What do They know about Diseases and Vaccinations?
by Peter Kreidl, Maria-Magdalena Breitwieser, Reinhard Würzner and Wegene Borena
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040610 – 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
In Austria, consent to receiving vaccines is regulated at the federal state level and in Tyrol, children aged 14 years are allowed to consent to receiving vaccination. In August 2017, we investigated determinants associated with vaccine hesitancy, having been vaccinated against measles and human papillomavirus (HPV) and the intention to vaccinate among schoolchildren born in 2002 and 2003. Those who consider measles and HPV a severe disease had a significantly higher intention to be vaccinated (prevalence ratio (PR) of 3.5 (95% CI 1.97–6.32) for measles and a PR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.62–6.35) for HPV). One-third of the participants (32.4%; 95% CI 27.8–37.4) were not aware that they are allowed to consent to receiving vaccines. The most common trusted source reported by respondents (n = 311) was the medical doctor (80.7%; 95% CI 75.7–84.7). The main finding related to the aim of the study was that the proportion of objectors is below 4% and therefore it should still be possible to reach measles elimination for which a 95% uptake is necessary. Although the proportion of objectors is not higher compared to adults, we recommend to intensify health education to increase health literacy.

Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 17 Oct 2020)

 

Open Access Review
Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers
by Giovanni Gabutti, Andrea Rossanese, Alberto Tomasi, Sandro Giuffrida, Vincenzo Nicosia, Juan Barriga, Caterina Florescu, Federica Sandri and Armando Stefanati
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606 – 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Cholera is endemic in approximately 50 countries, primarily in Africa and South and Southeast Asia, and in these areas, it remains a disease associated with poverty. In developed nations, cholera is rare, and cases are typically imported from endemic areas by returning travellers. Cholera is readily preventable with the tools available to modern medicine. In developing nations, cholera transmission can be prevented through improved water, sanitation, and hygiene services and the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). For travellers, risk can be mitigated by practicing regular hand hygiene and consuming food and water from safe sources. OCVs should be considered for high-risk travellers likely to be exposed to cholera patients or contaminated water and food. There are currently three World Health Organization pre-qualified OCVs, which are based on killed whole-cell strains of Vibrio cholerae. These established vaccines offer significant protection in adults and children for up to 2 years. A novel live attenuated vaccine that provides rapid-onset protection in adults and children is licensed in the USA and Europe only. Live attenuated OCVs may mimic the natural infection of V. cholerae more closely, generating rapid immune responses without the need for repeat dosing. These potential benefits have prompted the ongoing development of several additional live attenuated vaccines. The objective of this article is to provide a general review of the current landscape of OCVs, including a discussion of their appropriate use in international travellers.

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
Coronavirus Global Update
Queues in China for experimental vaccine
The Covid-19 vaccine is available to the public in the city of Yiwu under an emergency use programme. Also: why flying on an aeroplane during the pandemic may be safer than you might think, and could high doses of vitamin D offer protection against the virus?
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Release date: 17 October 2020

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
Chaguan
China calls its “heroic” handling of covid-19 proof of its wisdom
A lopsided global recovery amid Chinese bragging could sharpen divisions between China and the West
Oct 17

 

Financial Times
https://www.ft.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
The FT View The editorial board
China’s vaccine diplomacy has broader aims
October 12, 2020
As the US under President Donald Trump retreats from multilateral efforts on climate change and health, so China is rushing to fill the void. First came Xi Jinping’s commitment last month to make his country carbon neutral by 2060. Then late last week Beijing signalled it would join a World Health Organization initiative aimed at ensuring fair distribution of Covid-19 vaccines around the world. Both moves appear part of a wider public relations effort by Beijing to present itself as a good global citizen, and counter souring international perceptions of China. Both leave important questions unanswered. But like the climate move, China’s vaccine commitment deserves — with caveats — to be welcomed.

The Covax initiative aims to provide 2bn Covid-19 vaccinations globally by the end of 2021. Richer economies are asked for donations towards funding vaccine purchases for lower-income countries. They can also commit to pool a portion of their national vaccine procurements with those of the initiative — to increase overall bargaining power and help secure vaccines more cheaply. But amid widespread “vaccine nationalism”, richer countries were initially slow to join up and several of the world’s larger economies, including the US and Russia, remain outside.

Many developed countries have preferred to strike their own exclusive arrangements with vaccine providers — which could leave much of the global population vulnerable, and the virus circulating for longer. Covax has so far garnered pledges of about $1.8bn — far short of the $35bn-plus experts estimate is needed to buy sufficient volumes to cover the world’s population.

The entry of the world’s second-largest economy could help the initiative to gain critical mass, and increase pressure on other holdouts to join up. But there are big details to be filled in — including the size of any Chinese financial contribution and whether it will “pool” part of its own procurement. Some question whether Beijing is seeking to ease approval for vaccines being developed by its companies or gain access to third-party funding for global purchases of those vaccines. They fear China, like Russia, might cut a series of bilateral deals, notably in Africa, bypassing international standards and charging more than pooled purchasing and negotiation could achieve.

China’s success in containing the virus means it is short of Covid-19 patients to include in final-stage, or phase 3, trials of its own vaccine prospects, and needs to co-operate with other countries. Many of its leading vaccine candidates have been given to thousands of people outside the trials process, raising concerns about ethics as well as efficacy. But supplying developing nations is a commercial opportunity for China’s vaccine makers, which produce about a fifth of the world’s vaccines, largely for domestic use.

Joining the vaccine initiative is also a way of being seen to make amends, as the original source of coronavirus, for early mis-steps in containing it; Mr Trump insists he will “make China pay”. Beijing’s engagement contrasts sharply with the US president’s own plan to withdraw from the WHO.

Along with the emissions target, and a sign of willingness to co-operate on multilateral debt forgiveness, the vaccines step appears part of a broader attempt by China to portray itself as a more constructive partner. That cannot obscure the deep concerns over its behaviour, including its treatment of Uighurs, its Hong Kong clampdown, and threatening stance towards Taiwan. After the increase in tensions with the west in recent years, however, any indication of a shift in Beijing’s approach should be seen, with due caution, as positive.

Coronavirus pandemic
WHO chief says lack of global leadership has prolonged pandemic
A lack of leadership from global powers had prolonged the coronavirus pandemic, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of the World Health Organization, said on Monday as he called on the world’s biggest economies to “step up”.
“If you take the whole of the UN, it doesn’t work without global leadership by the countries themselves, especially the major powers,” Mr Tedros told the FT’s Africa Summit. Without explicitly criticising any nation, Mr Tedros said the UN’s role was to facilitate, but the power lay in the hands of member countries. “They should step up and lead, which is not the case in this pandemic, which is causing the pandemic to actually continue,” he added.
October 12, 2020
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Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
Oct 17, 2020, 07:07am EDT
Covid-19 Disinformation: Why Russia’s Been Blamed For Bizarre Vaccine Conspiracy Theory
James Rodgers Senior Contributor
The race to create—and then sell—a coronavirus vaccine is not just the number one priority in global healthcare. It is now a battleground in global politics.
Even taking that into account, the latest reported development in the propaganda war surrounding this most keenly-contested competition is, frankly, bizarre…

Oct 16, 2020
Pfizer Will Seek Emergency Approval For Covid-19 Vaccine In November, After Election
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration needs at least two months of safety data before authorizing emergency use of any experimental Covid-19 vaccine.
By Robert Hart Forbes Staff

Oct 15, 2020
Fauci Attacks Herd Immunity Declaration Embraced By White House As ‘Total Nonsense’
The Great Barrington Declaration says authorities should let Covid-19 spread uncontrollably through low-risk populations
By Robert Hart Forbes Staff

Oct 14, 2020
Fauci Ramps Up War Of Words With Trump, Warns Rallies Pose Covid Risk
Fauci said Trump’s crowded rallies with few masks are a ‘potential problem,’ while contradicting his claims on immunity and a vaccine timeline.
By Andrew Solender Forbes Staff

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Politics and More Podcast
Anthony Fauci, Then and Now
Dr. Fauci, who has been the face of establishment science during the AIDS and coronavirus crises, speaks with Michael Specter about his career as a lightning rod for criticism.
By Dorothy Wickenden
October 12, 2020

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
Health
First, a Vaccine Approval. Then ‘Chaos and Confusion.’
Come spring, Americans may have their choice of several so-so coronavirus vaccines — with no way of knowing which one is best.
By Carl Zimmer

 

Washington Post
https://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
China rapidly expands use of experimental COVID-19 vaccines
TAIPEI, Taiwan — China is rapidly increasing the number of people receiving its experimental coronavirus vaccines, with a city offering one to the general public and a biotech company providing another free to students going abroad.
The city of Jiaxing, south of Shanghai, is offering a vaccine under development by Sinovac, it said in an announcement Thursday. It said high-risk groups, including people who are “responsible for the basic operations of the city” will receive priority, but that residents who have emergency needs can also sign up.
The vaccine is in the final stage of clinical testing, but has not yet been approved. The city government said it is being provided under an emergency authorization.
China National Biotech Group, another Chinese vaccine company, is offering its vaccine free to students who study abroad in a strategy health experts say raises safety and ethical concerns.
Oct 16, 2020

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
TechTank
Reimagining innovation to navigate COVID-19
Joseph Kannarkat and Norman Augustine
Friday, October 16, 2020
 
 

Center for Global Development [to 17 Oct 2020]
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
October 14, 2020
Making the $12 Billion Go Further: Four Things the World Bank Can Do in Support of COVID-19 Vaccination Efforts
To maximise the impact of this badly needed investment to combat COVID and, most importantly, to avoid any perverse and potentially catastrophic implications of World Bank financing undermining current global efforts led by Gavi and CEPI, we propose that the World Bank commit to the four principles below.
Kalipso Chalkidou, Prashant Yadav and Amanda Glassman

October 12, 2020
New Data Show the World Bank’s COVID Response Is Too Small and Too Slow
The World Bank has committed to providing $104 billion in financing by next June to help developing countries deal with the COVID-19 crisis. Is that sufficient to meet the needs of developing countries facing a massive growth contraction? And will the bank actually deliver on its pledge?
Julian Duggan et al.
 
 

Chatham House [to 17 Oct 2020]
https://www.chathamhouse.org/
[No new relevant content]

 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
Upcoming Event
CSIS Press Briefing: Public Trust in a Covid-19 Vaccine
October 20, 2020
In this call, CSIS’s J. Stephen Morrison and Katherine Bliss and the London School’s Heidi Larson will discuss the proposal and its recommendations for effectively combating vaccine misinformation.

Report
What Can the United States Do to Prevent Another Pandemic? Commit to Modernizing Influenza Vaccines
October 14, 2020

 
 

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
[No new relevant content]

 
 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 17 Oct 2020
October 13, 2020 News Release
New Nationwide Poll by the Kaiser Family Foundation and The Undefeated Reveals Distrust of the Health Care System Among Black Americans
Half of African Americans say they will not take a coronavirus vaccine KFF/The Undefeated poll shows disparate views on health care between Black and white America