Classification of WHO Essential Oral Medicines for Children Applying a Provisional Pediatric Biopharmaceutics Classification System

Pharmaceutics
Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2019)
https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/11/11

 

Open Access Article
Classification of WHO Essential Oral Medicines for Children Applying a Provisional Pediatric Biopharmaceutics Classification System
by Jose-Manuel delMoral-Sanchez , Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez , Marta Gonzalez-Alvarez , Andres Navarro and Marival Bermejo
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110567 – 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
The objective was using the Essential Medicines List for children by the World Health Organization (WHO) to create a pediatric biopharmaceutics classification system (pBCS) of the oral drugs included in the Essential Medicines List by the World Health Organization and to compare our results with the BCS for adults (aBCS). Several methods to estimate the oral drug dose in different pediatric groups were used to calculate dose number (Do) and solubility (high/low). The estimation of the gastrointestinal water volume was adapted to each pediatric group. Provisional permeability classification was done by comparison of each drug lipophilicity versus metoprolol as the model drug of high permeability. As a result, 24.5% of the included drugs moved from the favorable to unfavorable class (i.e., from high to low solubility). Observed changes point out potential differences in product performance in pediatrics compared to adults, due to changes in the limiting factors for absorption. BCS Class Changes 1 to 2 or 3 to 4 are indicative of drugs that could be more sensitive to the choice of appropriate excipient in the development process. Validating a pBCS for each age group would provide a valuable tool to apply in specific pediatric formulation design by reducing time and costs and avoiding unnecessary pediatric experiments restricted due to ethical reasons. Additionally, pBCS could minimize the associated risks to the use of adult medicines or pharmaceutical compound formulations.

Factors associated with full immunization of children 12–23 months of age in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis using 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 30 Nov 2019]

 

Research Article
Factors associated with full immunization of children 12–23 months of age in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis using 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey
Yohannes Kinfe, Hagazi Gebre, Abate Bekele
Research Article | published 27 Nov 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225639

Factors associated with full immunization of children 12–23 months of age in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis using 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 30 Nov 2019]

 

Research Article
Factors associated with full immunization of children 12–23 months of age in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis using 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey
Yohannes Kinfe, Hagazi Gebre, Abate Bekele
Research Article | published 27 Nov 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225639

Enterovirus 71 vaccine acceptance among parents of children < 5 years old and their knowledge of hand, foot and mouth disease, Chongqing, China, 2017

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 30 Nov 2019]

 

Research Article
Enterovirus 71 vaccine acceptance among parents of children < 5 years old and their knowledge of hand, foot and mouth disease, Chongqing, China, 2017
Li Qi, Kun Su, Yu Xia, Wenge Tang, Tao Shen, Qin Li
Research Article | published 27 Nov 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225569

Global Consensus Frameworks, Standards, Guidelines, and Tools: Their Implications in International Development Policy and Practice

Prehospital & Disaster Medicine
Volume 34 – Issue 6 – December 2019
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine/latest-issue

 

Special Report
Global Consensus Frameworks, Standards, Guidelines, and Tools: Their Implications in International Development Policy and Practice
Suresh Pokharel, Caroline Spencer, Dudley McArdle, Francis Archer
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 10 October 2019, pp. 644-652

In the present world, International Consensus Frameworks, commonly called global frameworks or global agendas, guide international development policies and practices. They guide the development of all countries and influence the development initiatives by their respective governments. Recent global frameworks, adopted mostly post-2015, include both a group of over-arching frameworks (eg, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction [SFDRR]) and a group of frameworks addressing specific issues (eg, the Dhaka Declaration on Disability and Disaster Risk Management). These global frameworks serve twin purposes: first, to set a global development standard, and second, to set policies and approaches to achieve these standards. A companion group of professional standards, guidelines, and tools (ie, Sphere’s Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards) guide the implementation and operationalization of these frameworks on the ground.

This paper gathers these global frameworks and core professional guidelines in one place, presents an analytical review of their essential features, and highlights the commonalities and differences between and among these frameworks. The aim of this paper is to facilitate understanding of these frameworks and to help in designing development and resilience policy, planning, and implementation, at international and national levels, where these frameworks complement and contribute to each other.

This Special Report describes an important and evolving aspect of the discipline and provides core information necessary to progress the science. Additionally, the report will help governments and policy makers to define their priorities and to design policies/strategies/ programs to reflect the global commitments. Development practitioners can pre-empt the focus of the international community and the assistance coming from donors to the priority sectors, as identified in the global agenda. This would then help governments and stakeholders to develop and design a realistic plan and program and prepare the instruments and mechanisms to deliver the goals.