Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review 25 February 2017

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

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– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Milestones :: Perspectives

Milestones :: Perspectives

Reaching everyone, everywhere with life-saving vaccines
Commentary
25 February 2017
Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO,
Chris Elias, President of the Global Development Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation,
Anthony Fauci, Director of the US National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases,
Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF,
Seth Berkley, Chief Executive Officer of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

In 2015, world leaders agreed to a new development plan—a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Expanding access to immunisation is crucial to achieving the SDGs.1, 2 Not only do vaccinations prevent the suffering and death associated with infectious diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, whooping cough, measles, and polio, they also help enable national priorities like education and economic development to take hold.

The unique value of vaccines was the driving force behind the Decade of Vaccines, an effort launched at the 2010 World Economic Forum and supported by many stakeholders to extend the full benefits of immunisation to all by 2020.3 Governments welcomed the initiative, and 194 member states endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) at the 65th World Health Assembly.4 The plan is ambitious and aims to ensure that all people everywhere live free from vaccine-preventable diseases.

Since then, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization has issued annual progress reports. The 2016 GVAP midterm report5 provides a careful analysis of progress and challenges, and indicates that although there are bright spots in global immunisation efforts, the overall picture is sobering.

First, the bright spots. More children are being immunized worldwide than ever before with the highest level of routine coverage in history (as measured by coverage of three doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-containing vaccine).5 The world is closer than ever to eradicating polio. Since 2010, 99 low-income and middle-income countries have introduced one or more new or underused vaccines—for example, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines—exceeding the GVAP target for 2015.5 Indigenous measles and rubella have been eliminated from the Americas, and maternal and neonatal tetanus has been eliminated in southeast Asia.

Important progress has been made in vaccine research and development: a new vaccine against dengue has been licensed in several countries,5 and the first vaccine to protect children against malaria will be piloted in three African countries in 2018.7 In the past 2 years, there has been an increase in the number of vaccines in the clinical development pipeline.

The GVAP midterm report also reveals encouraging national and regional trends in vaccine coverage. For example, since 2010, 16 countries have substantially increased coverage of the third dose of the DTP vaccine, confirming that progress on immunization can be achieved with strong domestic leadership, meaningful investments, and effective accountability mechanisms.
Yet major challenges remain. All of the GVAP targets for disease elimination—including measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus—are behind schedule. Although more infants than ever before are receiving the critical third dose of the DTP vaccine, global coverage of these basic vaccines has increased by only 1% since 2010.5 This slow progress puts one of the most important goals in the GVAP seriously off track.

Although inequalities in the implementation of vaccination programmes have narrowed in the past decade as the poorest and least educated people gained more coverage, gaps persist. Only 52 of 112 member states with available and valid district-level data have surpassed the district-level coverage target of 80%. A high priority must be placed on the equitable extension of vaccine coverage to all. Finally, while financial support and commitment from donors and countries has increased, reflecting a global commitment to immunization, this increase is insufficient to meet all the needs to realize the GVAP targets.

In almost every country, some population groups have limited access to vaccines. These groups include people living in poverty, those who live in remote rural locations, segments of the urban poor, and displaced and nomadic people. This problem is compounded by data deficiencies at the national and local levels, which makes it even more challenging to identify where gaps lie and what is causing them—and thus to take corrective action. Several countries also report that vaccine prices are a barrier to the introduction of vaccines into their national programmes.

Many health facilities still have insufficient resources to engage with communities and provide them with the comprehensive public health services they need. Failure to integrate service delivery mechanisms has decreased the opportunities for health workers to improve immunization coverage and other key interventions to improve people’s health. Conflict and public health emergencies, such as the outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and Zika virus, and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases—for example, measles, yellow fever, and cholera—have strained fragile health systems.

Finally, inadequate domestic investments and continued donor dependency in many low-income and middle-income countries are raising concerns about the long-term global sustainability of immunization programmes, especially as funding for the polio programme slows down and countries transition away from the support they receive from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Where do we go from here? First, the global health community must continue working to provide all vaccines recommended by WHO to each and every child by ramping up efforts to extend full immunization to the about 19 million children who are still not fully protected against a core set of vaccine-preventable diseases. Efforts to build strong routine immunization systems, which balance supply and demand, must be intensified.

Routine immunization is a building block of strong primary health care and universal health coverage—it provides a point of contact for health care at the beginning of life and offers every child the chance of a healthy life from the start. Immunization is a cornerstone of global health security in an interconnected world where diseases do not respect national borders. Vaccines also serve as a frontline defense against antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, a 2016 study showed that for every US dollar spent on childhood vaccinations, the return on investment is US$44 when the full range of economic benefits are considered—making immunization one of the most cost-effective health interventions.

In addition to implementation challenges, we still face substantial research challenges. Vaccines are lacking or sub-optimal for many serious infectious diseases that exact an enormous toll worldwide. To address this problem, it will be crucial to ensure that vaccine markets provide the right incentives to invest in research and development for these vaccines and to expand research and development capacity in low-income and middle-income countries.

The global health community must work together to advance progress. Although governments are the main providers of immunization, the GVAP’s success depends upon many stakeholders—families, communities, health professionals, civil society, development partners, global agencies, manufacturers, media, and the private sector. It is essential that governments show strong leadership and good governance of national immunization programmes, which involves prioritizing system strengthening, securing investments, and improving surveillance capacity and data quality and use. Organisations that deliver immunization programmes, research and development partners, as well as global agencies can help improve GVAP accountability, work to overcome barriers to the timely delivery of vaccines in humanitarian crisis, and support vaccine research and development in low-income and middle-income countries.

Delivering on the goals and the promise of the GVAP is an urgent and essential priority. It will improve the health and wellbeing of people everywhere and help us achieve the SDGs, and ultimately a world in which no one—no child, no adolescent, no adult—is left behind. In 2017, we challenge countries and our own organisations to do more.

[Link to The Lancet version: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30554-8/fulltext?rss=yes ]

Emergencies

Emergencies

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 25 February 2017]
Iraq
Read the health situation report from Mosul pdf, 521kb 18 February 2016

Nigeria
Statement on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region in Oslo Humanitarian Conference
24 February 2017 Oslo, Norway
As several speakers have noted today, while there are enormous food security, nutrition and protection dimensions to the crisis in the Lake Chad Region, this is also a public health crisis, with rates of death, malnutrition and disease rarely seen over the past 20 years.
In Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, lack of qualified health workers, essential medicines and the destruction of medical facilities hamper the delivery of lifesaving health care. Widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are associated with severe health consequences. As you know, malnutrition lowers the body’s capacity to fight infection – a malnourished child is far more prone to contract an infectious disease such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and measles – and then to die from that disease. As one of our local staff in Niger said to me once – between malnutrition and death, there is always disease.
All four countries in the Lake Chad Region have similar health priorities: rapidly expanding access to a package of essential health care – including child and reproductive health; boosting immunization rates; preventing, detecting and responding to disease outbreaks; effectively treating malnutrition and its consequences. We also must address psychosocial problems, sexual and gender-based violence, and violent trauma leading to physical injuries. Together, health sector partners seek to help 8.2 million people this year…

South Sudan
South Sudan: Amidst insecurity, WHO in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and partners intensifies the health response to the cholera outbreak
14 February 2017, Juba, South Sudan – Despite the ongoing complex humanitarian crises in South Sudan, the World Health Organization (WHO) in partnership with the Ministry of Health and partners are responding to the latest cholera outbreak in the former Jonglei and Lakes States. The outbreak of cholera was first detected in June 2016 and since then 5 006 cholera cases and 99 deaths (CFR 1.98%) have been reported from 12 Counties in nine states countrywide.

Yemen
Yemeni health system crumbles as millions risk malnutrition and diseases
23 February 2017, Al-Hudaydah, Yemen – “Hospital staff have not received their salaries for the past 5 months. There are acute shortages of certain medicines and we need more fuel to ensure the hospital has electricity,” says Dr Khaled Suhail, Director of Al-Tharwa Hospital in Yemen’s third largest city, Al-Hudaydah. With more than 1200 employees and 320 beds, Al-Thawra Hospital is the main functioning health facility in Al-Hudaydah and neighbouring governorates.

The Syrian Arab RepublicNo new announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 25 February 2017]
Cameroon No new announcements identified.
Central African Republic No new announcements identified.
Democratic Republic of the CongoNo new announcements identified.
EthiopiaNo new announcements identified.
LibyaNo new announcements identified.
MyanmarNo new announcements identified.
NigerNo new announcements identified.
UkraineNo new announcements identified.

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 

Iraq
:: Iraq: Mosul Humanitarian Response Situation Report No. 21 (13 February – 19 February 2017)

Syria
:: Statement to the Security Council on Syria 22 Feb 2017
:: 24 Feb 2017
Health Resources Availability Mapping System (HeRAMS) Report – Turkey Hub Health Cluster for Syria, 2016

Yemen
:: Escalating Conflict on Yemen’s Western Coast – Flash Update # 2 | 25 February 2017
:: 21 Feb 2017
Statement by the Humanitarian Coordinator in Yemen, Jamie McGoldrick, on the Impact of the Conflict and Ongoing Food Crisis [EN/AR]

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UNICEF [to 25 February 2017]
https://www.unicef.org/media/media_94367.html
21 February 2017
Nearly 1.4 million children at imminent risk of death as famine looms in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen – UNICEF
NEW YORK/DAKAR/NAIROBI/AMMAN,– Almost 1.4 million children are at imminent risk of death from severe acute malnutrition this year, as famine looms in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen, UNICEF said today.

WHO: Rapid response teams and medicines deployed to cholera outbreak in South Sudan
February 2017 – Essential medicines and supplies have been delivered to communities in South Sudan affected by the cholera outbreak. The supplies were deployed along with rapid response teams that are currently working alongside local teams to control the outbreaks.
[No mention of OCV use]

WHO: About 17 million people are affected by crisis in the Lake Chad Basin
23 February 2017 – Years of violent conflict have deprived millions of people in north-eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, western Chad and south-east Niger of even the most basic health care services. Malnutrition is widespread and in the 3 worst-affected states of Nigeria nearly 6 million men, women, children and infants urgently need health assistance. WHO is working with the Nigerian Ministry of Health and partners to reach those in need with lifesaving health care.
…Millions of people in Borno State have had limited or no access to regular health services over a number of years, leading to very low vaccination rates. The ongoing movement of internally displaced people also makes it difficult to track those who have or have not been immunized. WHO supported a measles vaccination campaign in January 2017 which reached nearly 3 million children. Polio is still endemic in Nigeria, but WHO and its partners have vaccinated over 1.8 million children under five against the disease in a continued effort to eradicate it…

PAHO -Epidemiological Alerts and Updates
:: 24 February 2017: Cholera – Epidemiological Update
Between epidemiological week (EW) 1 and 5 of 2017, a total of 1,897 cholera cases were reported in Haiti, including 28 deaths. In the Dominican Republic, from the beginning of the year to EW 2 of 2017, there were 7 suspected cholera cases and 2 confirmed cases reported, including one death.

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POLIO [to 25 February 2017]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 15 February 2017
Country Updates [Selected Excerpts]
Afghanistan
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week from Nahr-e-Saraj district, Helmand province, with onset of paralysis on 21 January. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains 13, and two for 2017.
:: One new environmental WPV1 positive sample was reported in the past week from Jalalabad, Nangarhar, collected on 24 January
Pakistan
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week from Lodhran district, Punjab province, with onset of paralysis on 28 January 2017. This is the first case in Punjab since December 2015, and an immunization response is already being implemented.
:: One new environmental WPV1 positive sample was reported in the past week, from Quetta, Balochistan, collected on 20 January.

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Japan gives US$ 33.3 million in emergency polio funding
17/02/2017
New funding will contribute to emergency efforts in Nigeria and Lake Chad Region to prevent further spread of polio and stop the outbreak for good
US$ 33.3 million grant from the Government of Japan in humanitarian emergency funding to UNICEF was announced this week and will help to protect millions of children from polio in Nigeria and the Lake Chad region.
In response to the urgent need to rapidly raise immunity to polio virus in the region, Japan has generously provided exceptional funding from their supplementary budget envelope to purchase polio vaccines, conduct house-to-house polio campaigns and support communication efforts to mobilize communities for vaccination in Nigeria, Chad, Niger, Cameroon and the Central African Republic…

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Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

Zika virus [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/en/
Latest Report [apparently no longer bi-weekly]:
Zika situation report – 2 February 2017
Full report: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254507/1/zikasitrep2Feb17-eng.pdf?ua=1
Analysis
Overall, the global risk assessment has not changed. Zika virus continues to spread geographically to areas where competent vectors are present. Although a decline in cases of Zika infection has been reported in some countries, or in some parts of countries, vigilance needs to remain high.
[See PAHO announcements below]

Yellow Fever [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.who.int/emergencies/yellow-fever/en/
Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
:: Yellow fever – Brazil 24 February 2017 –
From 1 December 2016 to 22 February 2017, a total of 1336 cases of yellow fever infection (292 confirmed, 920 suspected, and 124 discarded), including 215 deaths (101 confirmed, 109 suspected, 5 discarded), have been detected in six states (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, and Tocantins). The estimated case fatality rate is 35% for confirmed cases and 12% for suspected cases. To date, the majority (86%) of the confirmed cases are men and of which, approximately 81% are aged between 21 and 60 years.

EBOLA/EVD [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.who.int/ebola/en/
No new digest content identified for this edition.

MERS-CoV [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/
No new digest content identified for this edition.

WHO: Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
:: 24 February 2017 – Yellow fever – Brazil
:: 23 February 2017 – Meningococcal disease – Togo
:: 22 February 2017 – Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China
:: 20 February 2017 – Seoul virus – United States of America and Canada
:: 20 February 2017 – Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

WHO & Regional Offices [to 25 February 2017]

WHO & Regional Offices [to 25 February 2017]

Reducing maternal and newborn deaths by half
14 February 2017 – Today, 9 countries – Bangladesh, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda – committed to halving preventable deaths of pregnant women and newborns in their health facilities within the next 5 years. Through a new network supported by WHO, UNICEF, and other partners, these countries will improve the quality of care mothers and babies receive.

Highlights
Rapid response teams and medicines deployed to cholera outbreak in South Sudan
February 2017 – Essential medicines and supplies have been delivered to communities in South Sudan affected by the cholera outbreak. The supplies were deployed along with rapid response teams that are currently working alongside local teams to control the outbreaks.

WHO issues first viral hepatitis testing guidelines
February 2017 – WHO issued its first-ever global guidance on testing for chronic viral hepatitis B and C on 16 February 2017. Viral hepatitis causes an estimated 1.4 million deaths worldwide each year. he guidelines were released in a special session at the 26th Conference of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL), held in Shanghai, China.

South African government commits to implement sugary drinks tax to tackle diabetes and obesity
February 2017 – WHO strongly supports announcement by the Government of South Africa to implement a tax on sugary beverages as part of the country’s campaign to promote the health of its citizens and combat the increasing challenges of diabetes and obesity.

Sri Lanka gears up to host Global Consultation on Migrant Health
February 2017 – Health leaders will gather in Colombo, from 21 to 23 February 2017, for a landmark consultation on migrant health. The 2nd Global Consultation on Migrant Health, jointly organized by the Government of Sri Lanka, IOM and WHO, strives to build international solidarity to enhance the health and well-being of migrants and their families.

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 24 February 2017, vol. 92, 8 (pp. 89–96)
Continued endemic wild poliovirus transmission in security-compromised areas – Nigeria, 2016

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:: WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: About 17 million people are affected by crisis in the Lake Chad Basin 23 February 2017
:: WHO and the African Union Commission map the way forward for stronger partnership – 18 February 2017
:: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance visits the WHO Regional Office for Africa – 18 February 2017

WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
:: WHO and PAHO Initiative to Support 17 New Research Proposals on Zika in Seven Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (02/23/2017)
:: Early cancer diagnosis saves lives, cuts treatment costs (02/03/2017)
:: The Zika Virus outbreak continues one year after the global emergency (02/02/2017)
:: Overweight affects almost half the population of all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean except for Haiti (01/18/2017)

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
:: Migrant Health: Resetting the agenda
21 February 2017 – The health problems of refugees and migrants are similar to those of the rest of the population. The most frequent health problems of newly arrived refugees and migrants include accidental injuries, hypothermia, burns, cardiovascular events, pregnancy and delivery-related complications, diabetes, and hypertension. Key stakeholders are discussing improving the health aspects of refugees and migrants, in the 2nd Global Consultation on Migrant Health, on 21–23 February 2017, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

WHO European Region EURO
:: The Crown Princess of Denmark, WHO/Europe Patron, receives WHO Medal for commendable contributions to global health 24-02-2017
:: Tobacco control activities in Turkey enter a new phase, with leaders looking to ensure sustainability 24-02-2017
:: Slovenian National Assembly passes strong tobacco control law 20-02-2017

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: Tracing every last virus:  Afghanistan steps up surveillance to accelerate polio eradication
Kabul 23 February 2017 – Afghanistan’s strong surveillance system is the backbone of the country’s polio eradication effort. It ensures that every single poliovirus is detected and analysed, enabling a quick and effective response to stop every strain of the debilitating virus. Afghanistan is closer than ever to stopping polio. Together with partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, WHO is further strengthening Afghanistan’s surveillance system to accelerate progress towards a polio-free Afghanistan.

WHO Western Pacific Region
:: A new vision for WHO–Lao People’s Democratic Republic partnership
VIENTIANE CAPITAL, 21 February 2017 – Over the past decade, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has observed significant improvements in the health status of the population. People are living longer, maternal mortality and deaths from malaria have been drastically reduced, and the number of tuberculosis cases is in decline. However, these impressive improvements in the country’s health are at risk from a new set of challenges, including rapidly increasing rates of noncommunicable disease and injury.

CDC/ACIP [to 25 February 2017]

CDC/ACIP [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/

MMWR Weekly February 24, 2017 / No. 7
[Excerpts]
:: Near Real-Time Surveillance of U.S. Norovirus Outbreaks by the Norovirus Sentinel Testing and Tracking Network — United States, August 2009–July 2015
:: Continued Endemic Wild Poliovirus Transmission in Security-Compromised Areas — Nigeria, 2016

Gavi [to 25 February 2017]

Gavi [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.gavi.org/library/news/press-releases/
23 February 2017

Gavi seeks to support innovative solutions to improve vaccine delivery
To propose cutting edge technology that could save lives, apply to INFUSE 2017
Geneva, 23 February 2017 – To ensure vaccines reach all the world’s children, Gavi is inviting entrepreneurs and businesses to identify innovations in vaccine delivery by applying to its INFUSE initiative.
With global immunisation coverage stalled at around 80% for several years and 19 million children missing out on a full course of basic vaccines, Gavi launched INFUSE – Innovation for Uptake, Scale and Equity in Immunisation – in 2016. This aims to find new thinking and technology that will help modernise often outdated vaccine delivery systems and then accelerate the expansion of these solutions.
“The speed with which the disease outbreaks disrupt the lives of children in the world’s poorest countries is only getting faster. We need to keep up and find new innovative solutions to evolving challenges and gaps in immunisation coverage which affect the most vulnerable children”, said Managing Director of resource mobilisation and private sector partnerships Marie-Ange Saraka-Yao.
“To create these solutions, we started INFUSE. This platform brings together global problem solvers who can find new ways to accelerate immunisation coverage and reduce inequities in access to vaccination for the world’s poorest children.”
Following last year’s launch at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos, Gavi has already helped one of INFUSE’s initial pacesetters, Nexleaf Analytics, forge a partnership with Google.org. Together these two companies are working to provide real-time data solutions to keep vaccines cold and safe in developing countries…

NIH [to 25 February 2017]

NIH [to 25 February 2017]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
February 22, 2017

Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine enters clinical testing
NIH-led trial to evaluate RSV vaccine’s safety in healthy adults.
A Phase 1 clinical trial to test the safety and tolerability of an investigational vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has begun at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. The trial also will assess the vaccine’s ability to prompt an immune response in healthy adult participants. The investigational vaccine was developed by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH…

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Rare Disease Day at NIH event features advances in rare diseases research
February 22, 2017 — Rare diseases affect an estimated 25 million Americans.

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NIH begins study of vaccine to protect against mosquito-borne diseases
February 21, 2017 — Experimental vaccine targets mosquito saliva.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has launched a Phase 1 clinical trial to test an investigational vaccine intended to provide broad protection against a range of mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as Zika, malaria, West Nile fever and dengue fever, and to hinder the ability of mosquitoes to transmit such infections. The study, which is being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, will examine the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune response.
The investigational vaccine, called AGS-v, was developed by the London-based pharmaceutical company SEEK, which has since formed a joint venture with hVIVO in London. The consulting group Halloran has provided regulatory advice to both companies.
Unlike other vaccines targeting specific mosquito-borne diseases, the AGS-v candidate is designed to trigger an immune response to mosquito saliva rather than to a specific virus or parasite carried by mosquitoes. The test vaccine contains four synthetic proteins from mosquito salivary glands. The proteins are designed to induce antibodies in a vaccinated individual and to cause a modified allergic response that can prevent infection when a person is bitten by a disease-carrying mosquito…

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Experimental PfSPZ malaria vaccine provides durable protection against multiple strains in NIH clinical trial
February 21, 2017 — An investigational malaria vaccine has protected a small number of healthy U.S. adults from infection with a malaria strain different from that contained in the vaccine, according to a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, sponsored and co-conducted the Phase 1 clinical trial.
… The PfSPZ Vaccine used in this study was developed by Sanaria Inc., of Rockville, Maryland. The vaccine contains weakened P. falciparum sporozoites that do not cause infection but are able to generate a protective immune response against live malaria infection. Earlier research at the NIH Clinical Center with the PfSPZ Vaccine found it to be safe, well-tolerated and protective for more than a year when tested in healthy U.S. adults against a single Africa-derived malaria strain matched to the PfSPZ Vaccine.
“An effective malaria vaccine will need to protect people living in endemic areas against multiple strains of the mosquito-borne disease,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. “These new findings showing cross-protection with the PfSPZ Vaccine suggest that it may be able to accomplish this goal.”…