Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review 28 January 2017

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Milestones :: Perspectives

Milestones :: Perspectives

WHO Executive Board announces the names of the 3 nominees for the post of WHO Director-General
25 January 2017
The WHO Executive Board selected by vote the following 3 candidates to be presented to World Health Assembly as nominees for the post of Director-General of WHO.
Five candidates were interviewed by Member States today prior to the vote. The names of the 3 nominees were announced at a public meeting on Wednesday evening, 25 January 2017.
:: Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
:: Dr David Nabarro
:: Dr Sania Nishtar
All Member States will choose among the 3 nominees by vote at the World Health Assembly in May 2017. The new Director-General will take office on 1 July 2017.

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140th session of the Executive Board
23 January–1 February 2017, Geneva
FOLLOW LIVE: Executive Board
The Executive Board will open at 09:30 on Monday 23 January 2017 and can be watched live via webcast. The discussions will be translated into the six UN official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

During the meeting, WHO’s Executive Board will draw up a short list of 5 candidates on Tuesday 24 January. The following day the Executive Board members will then interview the five candidates and up to three of them to go forward to the World Health Assembly in May 2017.
Live web stream (begins 09:30 CET on Monday 23 January 2017)
Provisional agenda
Main Documents

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Global vaccine action plan
EB140/25
27 Jan 2017 – Webcast of Exec Board discussion
[Video: 1:15] http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2017/webstreaming/eb140/en/

Draft resolution proposed by Australia, Brazil and Colombia
Strengthening immunization to achieve the goals of the global vaccine action plan
EB140/CONF./2
[Not adopted; intersessional work to be undertaken to address proposed amendments]

Referenced Supporting Documents
SAGE assessment report 2016
WHO 2016 :: 26 pages
PDF [EN]: http://www.who.int/entity/immunization/global_vaccine_action_plan/SAGE_GVAP_Assessment_Report_2016_EN.pdf?ua=1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
At the midpoint of the Global Vaccine Action Plan, or GVAP (2012- 2020), the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) remains gravely concerned that progress toward the goals to eradicate polio, eliminate measles and rubella, eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, and increase equitable access to lifesaving vaccines is too slow. Despite improvements in individual countries and a strong global rate of new vaccine introduction, global average immunization coverage has increased by only 1% since 2010.

In 2015, 68 countries fell short of the target to achieve at least 90% national coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. Not only that, 26 countries reported no change in coverage levels and 25 countries reported a net decrease in coverage since 2010. The 16 countries that have made measurable progress since 2010 are to be commended for reaching more people, especially vulnerable and marginalized members of society with immunization. Some of the countries with the highest numbers of unvaccinated people have made the most progress, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and India, and even though coverage targets have not been achieved in these countries, they are moving forward in the right direction.

The 111 countries that entered the decade with high immunization coverage and sustained it through 2015 are already setting their sights on more aggressive goals, additional vaccines, and more equitable coverage. Immunization programmes in these countries can lead the way by increasing access to other public health interventions and providing a platform for the delivery of preventive health services throughout the life course. Vaccine research and development is progressing rapidly, and an expanding pipeline of new vaccines underscores the need to build health systems that can reliably reach new target age groups.

The members of the SAGE are steadfast and passionate believers in the power of immunization to give individuals and their families a better start in life and to protect people from a growing array of debilitating illnesses. Immunization is one of the world’s most effective and cost-effective tools against the threat of emerging diseases and has a powerful impact on social and economic development. Recognizing the role that immunization plays in ensuring good health and the role that good health plays in achieving sustainable development, the SAGE has supported the inclusion of immunization indicators to measure progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals.

The next four years present unprecedented opportunities for countries to leverage the attention and support that immunization receives and apply it for the benefit of people everywhere. Strident efforts on the part of all countries and immunization stakeholders are required to catch up and achieve GVAP goals by 2020.

The SAGE has made nine recommendations which are detailed at the end of this report:
:: Demonstrate stronger leadership and governance of national immunization systems
:: Prioritize immunization system strengthening
:: Secure necessary investments to sustain immunization during polio and Gavi transitions
:: Improve surveillance capacity and data quality and use
:: Enhance accountability mechanisms to monitor implementation of Global and Regional Vaccine Action Plans
:: Achieve elimination targets for maternal and neonatal tetanus, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome
:: Resolve barriers to timely supply of affordable vaccines in humanitarian crisis situations
:: Support vaccine R&D capacity in low- and middle-income countries
:: Accelerate the development and introduction of new vaccines and technologies

GVAP – Monitoring, Evaluation & Accountability – Secretariat report 2016
WHO, 2016 :: 288 pages
Table of Contents
I. Monitoring results: goals, strategic objectives and indicators
1. DISEASE ELIMINATION
2. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE
3. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL 4 AND INTEGRATION
4. COUNTRY OWNERSHIP
5. VACCINE HESITANCY
6. SURVEILLANCE
7. VACCINES STOCKOUTS AND USE OF VACCINES IN A CONTROLLED-TEMPERATURE CHAIN
8. SUSTAINABLE FINANCING AND SUPPLY FOR IMMUNIZATION
9. VACCINE SAFETY
10. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Emergencies

Emergencies

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 28 January 2017]
Iraq
:: Efforts ongoing to provide trauma care to people in need in Mosul, Iraq
Cairo, 25 January 2017 – As the conflict in Mosul intensifies and greater numbers of civilians are caught in the crossfire, WHO and partners have increased trauma care services to ensure that patients requiring medical care for injuries have a greater chance of survival. However, additional funds are needed in order to provide a full scale of health services to the 2.7 million people affected.

South Sudan
:: WHO and partners scaling up measles vaccination to reach 2.3 million children in South Sudan
18 January 2017, Juba, South Sudan – WHO South Sudan in partnership with the MoH, UNICEF and other partners including state directors general for health and Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) officers of all states, gathered from 17 to 21 January 2017 at Juba Grand Hotel to plan on how to reach 2.3 million persons with measles vaccines in the face of a difficult operating environment.

The Syrian Arab RepublicNo new announcements identified.
YemenNo new announcements identified.
NigeriaSee measles immunization campaign announcement above.

UNICEF: 4.7 million children in vaccination campaign against measles in northeast Nigeria
26 January 2017 ABUJA, Nigeria,– In a major vaccination campaign concluding this week, 4.7 million children are being vaccinated in response to a measles outbreak in northeast Nigeria. The campaign is covering the three states most affected by the Boko Haram conflict – Adamawa, Borno and Yobe – where insecurity has limited vaccination efforts. In 2016, there were approximately 25,000 cases of measles among children in Nigeria; 97 per cent of the cases were in children under the age of ten and at least a hundred children died.

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 28 January 2017]
:: Responding to forgotten crises – Together with the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund
28 January 2017 — With the number and scale of humanitarian crises around the world, some countries have fallen off the global radar. That is the case for countries like the Central African Republic, Libya and Sudan, where pressing needs don’t seem to garner the world’s attention. This can make it difficult to raise the funding necessary to carry out humanitarian response plans.

CameroonNo new announcements identified.
Central African RepublicNo new announcements identified.
Democratic Republic of the Congo No new announcements identified.
EthiopiaNo new announcements identified.
LibyaNo new announcements identified.
MyanmarNo new announcements identified.
NigerNo new announcements identified.
UkraineNo new announcements identified.

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises.
Iraq
:: Iraq: Mosul Humanitarian Response Situation Report No. 17 (16 January – 22 January 2017) [EN/AR/KU]

Syria
:: Syria Arab Republic: Deir-ez-Zor Flash Update No. 2, 28 January 2017
:: 26 Jan 2017 Statement to the Security Council on Syria
:: 28 Jan 2017 Syria Arab Republic: Deir-ez-Zor Flash Update No. 2, 28 January 2017

Yemen
:: Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O’Brien Statement to the Security Council on Yemen, New York, 26 January 2017
:: 26 Jan 2017 Launch of the 2017-2018 Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan

Corporate Emergencies
Haiti
:: Haiti: Hurricane Matthew – Situation Report No. 33 (25 January 2017)

Zika virus [to 28 January 2017]

Zika virus [to 28 January 2017]
http://www.who.int/emergencies/zika-virus/en/

Latest Report: now bi-weekly
Zika situation report – 20 January 2017
Full report: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/253604/1/zikasitrep20Jan17-eng.pdf?ua=1
…Analysis
Overall, the global risk assessment has not changed. Zika virus continues to spread geographically to areas where competent vectors are present. Although a decline in cases of Zika infection has been reported in some countries, or in some parts of countries, vigilance needs to remain high.

POLIO [to 28 January 2017]

POLIO [to 28 January 2017]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 26 January 2017
:: The Executive Board of the World Health Organization is meeting this week in Geneva, Switzerland.  Ministries of Health will agree on the agenda for the May World Health Assembly (WHA), and will review various international public health topics.  Ministers are expected to receive a comprehensive review and overview of the latest global poliovirus epidemiology.

Country Updates [Selected Excerpts]
Afghanistan
:: One new environmental WPV1 positive sample was reported in the past week, from Hilmand province, collected on 23 December 2016.

Pakistan
:: One new environmental WPV1 positive sample was reported in the past week, from Killa Abdullah, Balochistan, collected on 1 January 2017. It is the first WPV1-positive sample detected globally from this year.