Vaccine: The life-course approach to vaccination: Harnessing the benefits of vaccination throughout life

Featured Journal Content

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 44 Pages 6581-6782 (16 October 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/44
Commentary
Discussion Abstract only
The life-course approach to vaccination: Harnessing the benefits of vaccination throughout life
Jody Tate, Teresa Aguado, Jan De Belie, Daphne Holt, … Suzanne Wait
Pages 6581-6583
Abstract
Vaccination beyond childhood brings significant benefits at the individual, community and socio-economic levels. Despite this, immunisation programmes often fail to deliver the vaccines which could protect those at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. In this commentary, we argue that the benefits of vaccination beyond childhood must be more widely understood and furthermore, that action must be taken by policymakers, healthcare professionals and patient and civil society organisations to ensure that the benefits of vaccination are fully realised. We outline five areas where change is needed to ensure vaccination across the life-course becomes truly embedded in national immunisation programmes. This includes investing in robust data collection and analysis; ensuring coordinated, multidisciplinary leadership from the top; engaging healthcare professionals; changing public perceptions of vaccination; and integrating vaccination into schools and workplaces.

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 12 October 2019

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 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_12 Oct 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Vaccination campaign against cholera kicks off in Sudan

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Vaccination campaign against cholera kicks off in Sudan
Joint statement by the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, WHO and UNICEF
KHARTOUM, 11 October 2019 – “Sudan has launched an oral cholera vaccination campaign in response to the ongoing outbreak of cholera.

“More than 1.6 million people aged one year and above in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states will be vaccinated over the coming five days.

“The announcement of the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan on the cholera outbreak last month allowed national and state authorities, and health partners, to act quickly and respond to the outbreak.

“Since the announcement on 8 September, 262 cases of suspected cholera and eight related deaths have been reported as of 9 October in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states. No cholera-related deaths have been reported since mid-September.

“The vaccines were procured and successfully shipped using funding from The Global Alliance for Vaccines International (GAVI), In addition, GAVI is providing nearly US$ 2 million to cover operational costs for the campaign.

“We joined efforts to respond as quickly as possible to contain the current outbreak of cholera and prevent it from spreading further in Sudan. The vaccination campaign kicking off today in combination with other measures including scaling up water, sanitation and hygiene activities, enhancing surveillance, prepositioning supplies and case management, will help protect people who are at highest risk.

“The first round of the campaign will conclude on 16 October and will be followed by a second round in four to six weeks to provide an additional dose to ensure people are protected for at least the next three years.

“As part of the campaign, over 3,560 vaccinators, more than 2,240 social mobilizers, and almost 70 independent monitors have been trained and deployed to the two affected states.”…

Statement by MPAC on the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Statement by MPAC on the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine
4 October 2019 MPAC [Malaria Policy Advisory Committee]
Globally, 219 million cases of malaria were reported in 2018, and an estimated 435,000 people, including 260.000 African children, died from malaria in 2017. Scale up of WHO-recommended preventive measures resulted in a substantial decline in malaria morbidity and mortality between 2000 and 2015. However, in 2015 and 2016, progress with malaria control stalled and started to reverse, with an upswing in malaria cases, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A malaria vaccine such as RTS,S has the potential to help get malaria control back on track, and may prove to be an important addition to current control tools.

The RTS,S vaccine, with its reported level of efficacy, has been shown to provide substantial and significant added protection on top of that provided by optimal case management and high coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), reducing clinical malaria by 55% during the 12 months following primary vaccination, and by 39% over 4 years. Recent data from long term follow-up are reassuring regarding its long term efficacy and safety. The well-established Expanded Programme on Immunization can reach even the poorest children, who are generally at highest risk of malaria, and suffer the highest mortality rates.

The opportunity to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, safety and effectiveness of the RTS,S vaccine, through pilot implementation in three countries, comes at a critical time in malaria control: no other malaria vaccine has entered phase 3 clinical trials. Additional preventive tools are in the development pipeline, and MPAC looks forward to reviewing their potential to reduce the malaria burden. However the development, evaluation and deployment of these new tools is expected to take several years. Moreover, it is likely that they will also offer only partial protection.

At a time when the downward trend in malaria cases and deaths has stalled, when our current control efforts are threatened by resistance, and when no new intervention approaching the efficacy of RTS,S is available, MPAC looks forward to reviewing the results of the pilot implementations, in accordance with the Framework for Policy Decision on RTS,S/AS01 approved at the April 2019 MPAC and SAGE meetings. If these results are promising, the RTS,S vaccine, in combination with ITNs and other control measures, is likely to be an important additional tool to change the course of malaria incidence and reduce malaria deaths in African children.

Global Fund Donors Pledge US$14 Billion in Fight to End Epidemics

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Global Fund Donors Pledge US$14 Billion in Fight to End Epidemics
10 October 2019
LYON, France – In an unprecedented show of global solidarity, donors at the Global Fund’s Sixth Replenishment Conference pledged US$14.02 billion for the next three years – the largest amount ever raised for a multilateral health organization, and the largest amount by the Global Fund. The funds will help save 16 million lives and end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria by 2030.

President Emmanuel Macron of France electrified the conference with a stirring appeal to deliver the next generation a better and healthier world, fighting inequality and strengthening social justice. President Macron called on all partners to increase their commitments by at least 15% in order to reach the target of at least US$14 billion, and during the pledging session that followed, donors answered that urgent call to step up the fight – many making last-minute increases on top of their original pledges.

 

In a stunning final push to reach the US$14 billion target, President Macron joined Bill Gates to make increased commitments for the coming three-year period, announcing that they would each pledge an additional US$60 million on top of pledges announced earlier in the day. With just US$80 million to go, President Macron, Mr. Gates and Bono – pointing to the imperative of ending the epidemics by 2030 – committed to raise at least a further US$100 million during the replenishment period to achieve a total of over US$14 billion.

“Everyone in the room today felt the power of a global community coming together to say in one voice: ‘We will end these epidemics’,” said Peter Sands, Executive Director of the Global Fund. “We are tremendously grateful to President Macron for his incredible leadership over the past year. With the incredible support of partners and donors around the world, we succeeded in reaching over US$14 billion to help save 16 million lives.”…

The life-course approach to vaccination: Harnessing the benefits of vaccination throughout life

Featured Journal Content

 

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 44 Pages 6581-6782 (16 October 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/44
Commentary
Discussion Abstract only
The life-course approach to vaccination: Harnessing the benefits of vaccination throughout life
Jody Tate, Teresa Aguado, Jan De Belie, Daphne Holt, … Suzanne Wait
Pages 6581-6583
Abstract
Vaccination beyond childhood brings significant benefits at the individual, community and socio-economic levels. Despite this, immunisation programmes often fail to deliver the vaccines which could protect those at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. In this commentary, we argue that the benefits of vaccination beyond childhood must be more widely understood and furthermore, that action must be taken by policymakers, healthcare professionals and patient and civil society organisations to ensure that the benefits of vaccination are fully realised. We outline five areas where change is needed to ensure vaccination across the life-course becomes truly embedded in national immunisation programmes. This includes investing in robust data collection and analysis; ensuring coordinated, multidisciplinary leadership from the top; engaging healthcare professionals; changing public perceptions of vaccination; and integrating vaccination into schools and workplaces.

Emergencies

Emergencies

Ebola – DRC+
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Ebola Outbreak in DRC 62: 08 October 2019
Situation Update
In the past week, from 30 September to 6 October, 14 new confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, with an additional nine deaths, have been reported from seven health zones in two affected provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although the decline in the number of new cases is encouraging, the recent fluctuations in case numbers per week must be interpreted with caution, as case reporting is contingent upon the level of access and security.
During mid-September, serious security incidents in Lwemba Health Area, Mandima Health Zone, stalled outbreak response activities for more than two weeks. Response activities have since resumed but remain limited. Last week, an open forum for discussion and reconciliation was held in Lwemba with partners and civil society to dispel mistrust and enhance engagement in future response activities. Improved access may result in enhanced case finding and an increase in the number of reported cases from the area…

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As measles deaths in the Democratic Republic of the Congo top 4,000, UNICEF rushes medical kits to health centers and vaccinates thousands more children
KINSHASA/DAKAR/GENEVA/NEW YORK, 9 October 2019 – UNICEF is vaccinating thousands more children against measles and rushing life-saving medicines to health centers across the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), as deaths from the world’s largest measles outbreak top 4,000.

Since January, 203,179 cases of measles have been reported in all 26 provinces of the country, and 4,096 have died.  Children under the age of five represent 74 per cent of infections and nearly 90 per cent of deaths. The number of measles cases in DRC this year is more than triple the number recorded for all of 2018. The measles outbreak in DRC has become far deadlier than Ebola, which to date, has taken 2,143 lives.

“We’re fighting the measles epidemic on two fronts – preventing infections and preventing deaths,” said UNICEF Representative in the DRC, Edouard Beigbeder. “Along with the government and key partners, UNICEF has been racing to vaccinate children against measles, and at the same time, supplying clinics with medicines that treat symptoms and improve the chance of survival for those already infected.”

This week and next, an additional 1,111 medical kits are being delivered to health centers in measles hot-spots. The kits contain antibiotics, rehydration salts, Vitamin A, pain relievers, antipyretics and other supplies to care for over 111,000 people infected with the highly contagious and potentially deadly viral disease.

Over the past year, UNICEF supplied more than 8.6 million doses of the measles vaccine for emergency outbreak responses rolled out by multiple organizations. UNICEF has led outbreak responses in eight hard-hit provinces—vaccinating more than 1.4 million children.  The most recent concluded last month in Kasai Central, where over 210,000 children were vaccinated…

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POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 09 October 2019
:: On 24 October 2019, World Polio Day, an event will be held at the WHO to mark the potential certification of eradication of wild poliovirus type 3. With no poliovirus type 3 detected anywhere in the world since 2012, the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) is anticipated to officially declare this strain as globally eradicated. The event will also be broadcast on the internet. Viewers are welcome to follow the proceedings through a WebEx broadcast that will be available here.

:: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, an Outbreak Response Assessment (OBRA) conducted in the country noted operational and Coordination improvements and strengthened government ownership in support of the outbreak response.  As a result, three genetically-distinct outbreak strains have been successfully stopped and recommended for closure, demonstrating the effectiveness of outbreak response measures, if fully implemented. At the same time, however, the OBRA noted that the strengthened political ownership now needed to rapidly translate into uniformly high-quality outbreak response, including through appropriate use and management of mOPV2, effective implementation of accountability framework to ensure high quality campaigns to urgently stop the remaining outbreak lineages and prevent further strains from emerging in the future.

:: On 16 September 2019, the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) held its twenty-second meeting. Read the committee’s report of progress for affected IHR States Parties subject to Temporary Recommendations.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Pakistan — three WPV1 cases and 13 WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Central African Republic— four cVDPV2 cases and two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples;
:: Democratic Republic of the Congo — three circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases;
:: Philippines — three cVDPV2 positive environmental samples.

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 12 Oct 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Ebola Outbreak in DRC 62: 08 October 2019
[See Ebola above for detail]

Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 12 Oct 2019]

Iran floods 2019
:: WHO mobile clinics deployed to Islamic Republic of Iran 9 October 2019

Libya
:: WHO provides support for treatment of leishmaniasis in Libya 7 October 2019

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Burkina Faso [in French] – No new digest announcements identified
Burundi – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
HIV in Pakistan – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
Measles in Europe – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 12 Oct 2019]

Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syria ǀ Flash Update #2, Humanitarian impact of the military operation in north-eastern Syria, 11 October 2019
:: Syrian Arab Republic: Recent Developments in Northwestern Syria Situation Report No. 13 – as of 8 October 2019

Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth
:: 06 Oct 2019 Cholera response plan launched in Sudan

EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

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