WHO: Global Immunization News December 2012

WHO: Global Immunization News   December 2012  http://www.who.int/entity/immunization/GIN_December_2012.pdf

– Djibouti celebrates Introduction of Pneumococcal vaccine in the National Immunization programme

– Growing Consensus on Strengthening National Vaccine Delivery Systems

– Timor-Leste launches introduction of new vaccine as part of intensification of routine immunization

– Review of National Immunization Programme in Tajikistan, 19-28 November 2012

– Eastern Mediterranean is the first WHO region launching Vaccine Safety E-learning course CD

– New technology for producing thermostable INFLUENZA vaccines

– The 2nd Hands-on Training Course to Implement Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique for Rapid Detection and Characterization of Polioviruses in the Western Pacific Region

– 18th Meeting of the Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the Western Pacific Region

– First meeting on seasonal influenza vaccines in Western Pacific Region

– IPV recommended for countries to mitigate risks and consequences associated with OPV2 withdrawal

– Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine Preventable Diseases Surveillance Meeting

– SOUTH EAST ASIA countries share experiences on intensification of routine immunization at GAVI Partners’ Forum

– National Polio Committees develop action plans for 2013 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

– Immunizations Systems and Technologies for Tomorrow

IVAC – Costing Dengue Cases and Outbreaks: A Guide to Current Practices and Procedures

IVAC: Costing Dengue Cases and Outbreaks: A Guide to Current Practices and Procedures
December 20, 2012

“In response to the growing need to answer the question of cost in order to weigh the benefits of future introduction of vaccines against dengue, IVAC convened an expert panel in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for estimating costs of dengue in the Americas. The resulting guidelines aim to ensure robust assessment of the economic burden of dengue infections and to make the results of future dengue cost studies more comparable among Latin American countries.”

Contributing factors to influenza vaccine uptake in general hospitals: an explorative management questionnaire study from the Netherlands

BMC Public Health
(Accessed 22 December 2012)

Research article
Contributing factors to influenza vaccine uptake in general hospitals: an explorative management questionnaire study from the Netherlands
Josien Riphagen-Dalhuisen, Joep CF Kuiphuis, Arjen R Procé, Willem Luytjes, Maarten J Postma, Eelko Hak BMC Public Health 2012, 12:1101 (21 December 2012)

Abstract (provisional)
The influenza vaccination rate in hospitals among health care workers in Europe remains low. As there is a lack of research about management factors we assessed factors reported by administrators of general hospitals that are associated with the influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers.

All 81 general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate in a self-administered questionnaire study. The questionnaire was directed at the hospital administrators. The following factors were addressed: beliefs about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, whether the hospital had a written policy on influenza vaccination and how the hospital informed their staff about influenza vaccination. The questionnaire also included questions about mandatory vaccination, whether it was free of charge and how delivered as well as the vaccination campaign costs. The outcome of this one-season survey is the self-reported overall influenza vaccination rate of health care workers.

In all, 79 of 81 hospitals that were approached were willing to participate and therefore received a questionnaire. Of these, 42 were returned (response rate 52%). Overall influenza vaccination rate among health care workers in our sample was 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 14.6% to 20.8%). Hospitals in which the administrators agreed with positive statements concerning the influenza vaccination had a slightly higher, but non-significant, vaccine uptake. There was a 9% higher vaccine uptake in hospitals that spent more than [euro sign]1250,- on the vaccination campaign (24.0% versus 15.0%; 95% confidence interval from 0.7% to 17.3%).

Agreement with positive statements about management factors with regard to influenza vaccination were not associated with the uptake. More economic investments were related with a higher vaccine uptake; the reasons for this should be explored further.

The complete article is available as a provisional PDF. The fully formatted PDF and HTML versions are in production.

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

BMC Public Health
(Accessed 22 December 2012)

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective
Katya L Richardson, Michelle S Driedger, Nick J Pizzi, Jianhong Wu, Seyed M Moghadas BMC Public Health 2012, 12:1098 (20 December 2012)

Abstract (provisional)
The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

The complete article is available as a provisional PDF. The fully formatted PDF and HTML versions are in production.

Personal View – Polio eradication was an ideological project

British Medical Journal
22 December 2012 (Vol 345, Issue 7888)

Views & Reviews – Personal View
Polio eradication was an ideological project
BMJ 2012; 345 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8545 (Published 19 December 2012)
Cite this as: BMJ 2012;345:e8545

In the 1980s, why was polio, with its rather small mortality rate, chosen for a worldwide “eradication” campaign, when other infectious diseases such as measles, pneumonia, and diarrhoea causing infections each killed millions of children a year? It had little to do with the priorities of most developing countries where polio was endemic. It was more to do with the ideology of a small number of powerful and well placed players in global public health who were dedicated to the concept of so called eradication as perhaps the major tool for international public health.1

Many of these people had been involved in the successful campaign to eradicate smallpox. However, after that great achievement near consensus had formed in public health circles that primary healthcare (including routine immunisation) rather than vertical eradication campaigns should be the focus of global and national efforts. It looked as though smallpox would be the first and last human disease to be eradicated.

Those who I would call “eradicationists” had to find a disease that could be quickly…

Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Emerging Infectious Diseases
Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Routine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children, England and Wales
S. N. Ladhani et al.
Nonvaccine serotypes occur more often among children with comorbid conditions.

Vaccination and Tick-borne Encephalitis, Central Europe
F. X. Heinz et al.
Tick-borne encephalitis is a disease of the brain caused by a virus found in many parts of Europe as well as central and eastern Asia. As the name indicates, the virus is spread by tick bites. The number of people infected each year varies according to complex interactions involving the ticks’ environment, the weather, and human socioeconomic and vaccination status. To determine how well vaccine protects against the disease, researchers compared the number of cases in 3 neighboring countries in which vaccination coverage differs but many other factors remain the same: Austria (where more than three quarters of the population are vaccinated) and Slovenia and the Czech Republic (where less than one quarter of the population are vaccinated). They found far fewer cases in Austria, indicating that vaccination is an excellent way to prevent this disease.

Novel Framework for Assessing Epidemiologic Effects of Influenza Epidemics and Pandemics
C. Reed et al.
Organizing and prioritizing data collection may lead to informed assessment and guide decision making.

Human rights and health systems development: Confronting the politics of exclusion and the economics of inequality

Health and Human Rights
Vol 14, No 2 (2012)

Human rights and health systems development: Confronting the politics of exclusion and the economics of inequality
Paul Farmer, Duncan Maru

The social movements of the last two decades have fostered a rights-based approach to health systems development within the global discourse on national and international health governance. In this piece, we discuss ongoing challenges in the cavernous “implementation gap”—translating legislative human rights victories into actual practice and delivery. Using accompaniment as an underlying principle, we focus primarily on constructing effective, equitable, and accountable public sector health systems. Public sector health care delivery is challenged by increasingly exclusive politics and inequitable economic policies that fundamentally limit the participatory power of marginalized citizens. Finally, we discuss the role of implementation science in closing the delivery gap in human rights practice.