GPEI: Update: Polio this week – As of 26 June 2013

Update: Polio this week – As of 26 June 2013
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
http://www.polioeradication.org/Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisweek.aspx
[Editor’s extract and bolded text]

:: In Pakistan, the WPV1 outbreak in Bara in Khyber Agency (Federally Administered Tribal Areas – FATA), is continuing. Seven cases have now been reported since end-April. This outbreak is the major WPV reservoir in all of Asia, and is threatening progress achieved elsewhere in the country and in neighbouring Afghanistan. See ‘Pakistan’ section below for more.

:: In Chad and Cameroon, new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. Genetic sequencing is ongoing to determine the origin of these latest cases, though it is likely they are linked to the ongoing cVDPV2 outbreak affecting Chad. See ‘Chad and Cameroon’ sections below for more.

:: In the Horn of Africa, outbreak response is continuing. In Somalia, three campaigns have now been conducted and in Kenya, two large-scale activities have been implemented. Although newly-reported cases are increasing, it is important to note that none of these of these cases represent breakthrough transmission since outbreak response activities began.

Afghanistan
:: One new WPV case was reported in the past week (WPV1 from Nangarhar), bringing the total number of WPV cases for 2013 to three. It is the most recent WPV case in the country and had onset of paralysis on 6 June.

Pakistan
:: One new WPV case was reported in the past week (WPV1 from Bara in Khyber Agency, FATA), bringing the total number of WPV cases for 2013 to 17. It is the most recent WPV case in the country and had onset of paralysis on 6 June.

:: Bara is affected by an outbreak of WPV1, with seven cases now confirmed since end-April. This outbreak is the major WPV reservoir in all of Asia, and is threatening progress achieved elsewhere in the country and in neighbouring Afghanistan. It is an area where limited vaccination activities have been conducted since 2009, due to hampered access and insecurity.

:: In 2011 and 2012, Bara was the epicentre of a major outbreak which also spread to other areas.

Central Africa: Chad and Cameroon
:: In Chad, no new WPV cases were reported in the past week. The most recent WPV case had onset of paralysis on 14 June 2012 (WPV1 from Lac).

:: One new cVDPV2 case was reported in the past week in Chad, bringing the total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 to two. It is the most recent cVDPV2 case in the country and had onset of paralysis on 10 April (from N’Djamena).

:: In Cameroon, a cVDPV2 case was also reported from Extreme-Nord (onset of paralysis on 9 May).

:: Genetic sequencing is ongoing to determine the origin of these latest cases, but it is likely that they are linked to the ongoing cVDPV2 outbreak affecting Chad.

:: Emergency outbreak response plans are currently being finalized in both countries. In Chad, nationwide campaigns were held this week (23-26 June) with trivalent OPV. Cameroon will conduct its first round in the north of the country on 15-18 July with trivalent OPV.

Horn of Africa
:: Six new WPV cases were reported in the past week (WPV1s from Somalia), bringing the total number of WPV1 cases in the region to 31 (25 WPV1s from Somalia and six WPV1s from Kenya). The most recent WPV case in the region had onset of paralysis on 23 May (from Banadir, Somalia).

:: The bulk of the newly-reported cases are from Banadir, which remains the epicentre of the outbreak.

:: Although newly-reported cases are increasing, it is important to note that none of these cases represent breakthrough transmission since outbreak response activities began.

:: However, of concern is that two cases have now been reported from districts in Lower Shabelle region in south-central Somalia where access for supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) has been compromised for the past three years. Surveillance in this area, however, remains functional. As many as 500,000 children in this area are at particular risk of polio at the moment. Efforts are ongoing to operate in this area, and vaccinations are continuing at entry and exit points to build up immunity levels.

:: In Somalia, the third round of outbreak response campaigns was conducted last week, including in Banadir (which includes Mogadishu), targeting all age groups.

:: Anecdotal feedback from the field indicates overall good coverage is being achieved, with strong community participation. The fourth round will start on 1 July, again aiming to reach all age groups in Banadir.

:: The security situation continues to be evaluated, especially following the deadly attack on the UN compound in Mogadishu last week.

:: In Kenya, the second round of outbreak response campaigns was conducted last week. In the Dadaab area, all age groups were targeted. The third round will start on 1 July.

:: Immunization campaigns are also planned and being conducted in other countries of the Horn of Africa, notably Ethiopia and Yemen, to urgently boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak.

;The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) for 28 June 2013, vol. 88, 26 (pp. 261–268) includes:
:: Index of countries/areas
:: Index, Volume 88, 2013, Nos. 1–26
:: Performance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and incidence of poliomyelitis, 2013
:: Monthly report on dracunculiasis cases, January–April 2013

http://www.who.int/entity/wer/2013/wer8826.pdf

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – update 26 June 2013

WHO: Global Alert and Response (GAR) – Disease Outbreak News
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2013_03_12/en/index.html
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – update 26 June 2013
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2013_06_17/en/index.html

Excerpt
The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Saudi Arabia has announced seven additional laboratory-confirmed cases and a death in a previously confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

Four cases have been detected among contacts of confirmed cases in Riyadh and the Eastern Region. They range in age from seven to 15 years, and all were asymptomatic. Two further asymptomatic cases have been record among female healthcare workers in the Eastern Region and Al-Ahsa. A seventh case has been detected in a 50 year-old female in the Eastern Region.     She is currently hospitalized with pulmonary disease and her condition is considered stable.

In addition, the MoH has announced the death of a previously reported confirmed case from the Eastern Region (the 32 year-old male first reported on 23 June).

Globally, from September 2012 to date, WHO has been informed of a total of 77 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV, including 40 deaths…

Meeting: Launch of WHO’s financing dialogue

Meeting: Launch of WHO’s financing dialogue
Geneva, Switzerland
24 June 2013
On 24 June, WHO met in Geneva with Member States and other contributors to embark on a financing dialogue.

The dialogue follows Member States’ agreement on WHO’s priorities for the coming years, focusing on areas where the Organization has a unique function or comparative advantage.    These priorities and the actions that WHO has committed to take to improve health outcomes for the world’s people are highlighted in the WHO Programme Budget for 2014-15.

The financing dialogue, which will bring together WHO’s contributors again at the end of November, aims to ensure this Programme Budget is fully funded.
:: for WHO to share additional information on the programming, budgeting, and financing of WHO’s 2014-15 Programme Budget;

:: for participants to discuss expectations for, and help shape, the financing dialogue process, including the second meeting planned for November 2013;

:: for participants to provide indications of how they are considering financing WHO and opportunities and challenges they face in securing predictable financing aligned with the priorities of WHO.

Background documents

:: Provisional meeting agenda for launch of WHO’s financing dialogue, 24 June 2013
pdf, 511kb

:: Launch of WHO’s financing dialogue: key principles, June 2013
pdf, 266kb

:: Investing in the World’s Health Organization
pdf, 4.53Mb

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Taking steps towards a fully-funded Programme Budget 2014-2015 – Speeches and presentations given at the meeting

:: WHO Director-General’s opening remarks
pdf, 111kb

:: Presentation – WHO’s budget – English
pdf, 1.64Mb

:: Presentation – WHO’s budget – French
pdf, 1.53Mb

::Presentation – Investing in the World’s Health Organization – English
pdf, 1.52Mb

:: Presentation – Investing in the World’s Health Organization – French
pdf, 1.32Mb

Workshop: Developing Financing Strategies for Dengue Vaccine Introduction in the Americas

Workshop:  Developing Financing Strategies for Dengue Vaccine Introduction in the Americas
July 22-23 2013 [Site not identified]
IVAC, International Vaccine Institute (IVI), the Sabin Vaccine Institute, and PAHO [Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI)]

“In January 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) ranked dengue the world’s fastest growing tropical disease. The region of the Americas continues to experience a significant portion of the global burden of dengue, which is estimated to be 50-100 million dengue cases per year. An effective and affordable dengue vaccine will play a critical role in reducing the human and economic costs of the disease by preventing millions around the world from getting sick. To introduce and implement a dengue vaccine in a timely and equitable manner, countries need to assess their needs and current capacities and develop effective immunization and financing strategies.

“…More than 20 experts in health economics, epidemiology, and financing, plus program managers and decision makers, will work to identify a set of recommendations of financing options that would facilitate equitable and timely introduction of dengue vaccine and to develop a set of key actions that can advance these recommendations.”

http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/about-us/news.html#DenFin

UNICEF – 2012 Supply Annual Report Supply Chains for Children

Annual Report: UNICEF – 2012 Supply Annual Report Supply Chains for Children
UNICEF
June 2013 – 82 pages

Excerpt from Introduction
“…Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of UNICEF’s large supply chain network requires working on internal and external processes and procedures, and strengthening our interactions with the wide range of partners we collaborate with every day.

Internally, UNICEF is introducing new tools, approaches and technical capacities to optimise the supply chain activities we manage. Performance objectives such as reduced stock-outs, lower transport costs and timely delivery have been established and are monitored on a regular basis.

Externally, we are helping strengthen national supply chains in partnership with governments and other stakeholders. Together, we are optimising global supply chains by improving key interfaces and dependencies based on analysis and evidence. The testing of temperature-controlled sea shipments from supplier to implementing partner, streamlining packaging and deliveries, using text message alerts to warn of temperature breaches, improving the traceability and monitoring of products via barcoding, and strategic tendering for local transport provision will help us realise these goals. Building a professional network of supply chain managers is also critical to these achievements.

Strong supply chains will deliver better results for children and their families, and will support the realisation of their rights to health, education, nutrition and protection wherever they live…”
http://www.unicef.org/supply/index_report.html

Editor’s Note: The report notes that in 2012 UNICEF procured vaccines and supporting supplies valued at USD$1,053 billion, involving some 1.9 billion vaccine doses for 96 countries; 554.1 million immunization syringes, and USD$29.7 million worth of cold chain equipment.

Health care personnel immunization programs: An assessment of knowledge and practice among infection preventionists in US health care facilities

American Journal of Infection Control
Vol 41 | No. 7 | July 2013 | Pages 575-666
http://www.ajicjournal.org/current

Health care personnel immunization programs: An assessment of knowledge and practice among infection preventionists in US health care facilities
Ruth M. Carrico, PhD, RN, FSHEA, CIC; Timothy Wiemken, PhD, MPH, CIC; Kelly Westhusing, MPH; Diana Christensen, MD; W. Paul McKinney, MD
published online 14 January 2013. http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2812%2901242-4/abstract

Abstract
Background
Guidelines exist that recommend specific vaccines for health care personnel and supporting documents provide guidance for program development and implementation, but the extent to which those guidelines have been implemented in health care personnel immunization programs has not been fully explored. This project aimed to evaluate current practices in US health care facilities concerning health care personnel immunization programs.

Methods
A Web-based survey was deployed to 13,670 infection preventionists to assess 5 major program areas: (1) immunization program management; (2) vaccines provided to health care personnel; (3) vaccine handling practices; (4) training provided for the individual(s) responsible for the program; and (5) quality indicators for the program. A scoring scale was developed that demonstrated an overall measure of program performance.

Results
The Web-based survey resulted in 1,006 completed responses. When assessing overall program performance, the median vaccine program score was 47.6%. Respondents certified in infection prevention (CIC) scored significantly higher in overall program performance than respondents not certified (54% vs, 43%, respectively, P = .003).

Conclusion
Results of the survey have identified a number of education and training opportunities that can be addressed by professional associations using available evidence-based and proven implementation materials as resource documents.