Journal of Community Health, Oct 2013

Journal of Community Health
Volume 38, Issue 5, October 2013

Eradication of Hepatitis B: A Nationwide Community Coalition Approach to Improving Vaccination, Screening, and Linkage to Care
Chari Cohen, Jeffrey Caballero, Melinda Martin… Pages 799-804

Original Papers
English Proficiency, Knowledge, and Receipt of HPV Vaccine in Vietnamese-American Women
Jenny K. Yi, Karen O. Anderson, Yen-Chi Le…

Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Cervical Cancer Awareness and Gardasil Vaccination: A Pilot Survey Among North Indian Women
Samya Pandey, Chandravati

Editorial – Privacy and protection in the genomic er

Nature Medicine
September 2013, Volume 19 No 9 pp1073-1189

Privacy and protection in the genomic era – p1073

The establishment of an NIH working group managing access to HeLa cell genomic data highlights the limitations of assuring the privacy of participants in genomics studies. If, as this case illustrates, anonymity cannot be guaranteed, informed consent rules may need to be revised.

Risks (and Benefits) in Comparative Effectiveness Research Trials

New England Journal of Medicine
September 5, 2013  Vol. 369 No. 10

Risks (and Benefits) in Comparative Effectiveness Research Trials
Chris Feudtner, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Mark Schreiner, M.D., and John D. Lantos, M.D.
N Engl J Med 2013; 369:892-894September 5, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1309322

To provide ethically appropriate oversight and informed consent for randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness research trials, investigators should consider, manage, and inform potential participants about at least nine different types of potential risk.

Big Pharma and Social Responsibility — The Access to Medicine Index

New England Journal of Medicine
September 5, 2013  Vol. 369 No. 10

Big Pharma and Social Responsibility — The Access to Medicine Index
Hans V. Hogerzeil, M.D., Ph.D.
N Engl J Med 2013; 369:896-899September 5, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1303723

The Access to Medicine Index, an independent initiative, ranks the world’s 20 largest research-based pharmaceutical companies according to their efforts to make their products more available, affordable, and accessible in developing countries.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly

PLoS One
[Accessed 7 September 2013]

Research Article
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tdap in the Prevention of Pertussis in the Elderly
Lisa J. McGarry mail, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Gregory Hill, Michelle Skornicki, Narin Pruttivarasin, Cristina Masseria, Bhakti Arondekar, Stephen I. Pelton, Milton C. Weinstein

Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) immunization among adults ≥65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose) to include adults ≥65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination.

We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25–200 cases per 100,000), due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient ‘s lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010) for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results.

At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario analyses.

EPIVAC International Conference on Financial Sustainability of Immunization Programs in sub-Saharan Africa, February 16–18, 2012, Ouidah, Benin

Volume 31, Issue 41, Pages 4465-4688 (23 September 2013)
EPIVAC International Conference on Financial Sustainability of Immunization Programs in sub-Saharan Africa, February 16–18, 2012, Ouidah, Benin
Pages 4470-4476
Marcel Drach, Jean-Bernard Le Gargasson, Jacky Mathonnat, Alfred Da Silva, Miloud Kaddar, Anaïs Colombini

The introduction of new vaccines with much higher prices than traditional vaccines results in increasing budgetary pressure on immunization programs in GAVI-eligible countries, increasing the need to ensure their financial sustainability. In this context, the third EPIVAC (Epidemiology and Vaccinology) technical conference was held from February 16 to 18, 2012 at the Regional Institute of Public Health in Ouidah, Benin. Managers of ministries of health and finance from 11 West African countries (GAVI eligible countries), as well as former EPIVAC students and European experts, shared their knowledge and best practices on immunization financing at district and country level.

The conference concluded by stressing five major priorities for the financial sustainability of national immunization programs (NIPs) in GAVI-eligible countries.
– Strengthen public financing by increasing resources and fiscal space, improving budget processes, increasing contribution of local governments and strengthen efficiency of budget spending.
– Promote equitable community financing which was recognized as a significant and essential contribution to the continuity of EPI operations.
– Widen private funding by exploring prospects offered by sponsorship through foundations dedicated to immunization and by corporate social responsibility programs.
– Contain the potential crowding-out effect of GAVI co-financing and ensure that decisions on new vaccine introductions are evidence-based.
– Seek out innovative financing mechanisms such as taxes on food products or a national solidarity fund.

Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine programm

Volume 31, Issue 41, Pages 4465-4688 (23 September 2013)

Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine programmes
Review Article
Pages 4477-4486
Ray Borrow, Raquel Abad, Caroline Trotter, Fiona R.M. van der Klis, Julio A. Vazquez

Since the introduction of monovalent meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugate (MCC) vaccines and the implementation of national vaccination programmes, the incidence of MenC disease has declined markedly as a result of effective short-term vaccination and reduction in acquisition of MenC carriage leading to herd protection. Monovalent and quadrivalent conjugate vaccines are commonly used vaccines to provide protection against MenC disease worldwide. Studies have demonstrated that MCC vaccination confers protection in infancy (0–12 months) from the first dose but this is only short-term. NeisVac-C has the greatest longevity of the currently licensed MCC vaccines in terms of antibody persistence, however antibody levels have been found to fall rapidly after early infant vaccination with two doses of all MCC vaccines – necessitating a booster at ∼12 months. In toddlers, only one dose of the MCC vaccine is required for routine immunization. If herd protection wanes following catch-up campaigns, many children may become vulnerable to infection. This has led many to question whether an adolescent booster is also required.

Trends and disparity in zoster vaccine uptake in a managed care population

Volume 31, Issue 41, Pages 4465-4688 (23 September 2013)

Trends and disparity in zoster vaccine uptake in a managed care population
Original Research Article
Pages 4564-4568
Rulin C. Hechter, Sara Y. Tartof, Steven J. Jacobsen, Ning Smith, Hung Fu Tseng

Zoster vaccine is recommended for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. We examined the zoster vaccination rates during 2007–2011 and assessed association with age, sex, race/ethnicity, neighborhood income and education attainment in eligible adults at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a managed care organization in the US.

We calculated annual zoster vaccination rate among members ≥60 years without documented contraindications. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine factors associated with zoster vaccine uptake in an open cohort of 819,466 adults.

The zoster vaccination rates increased annually in all groups and the overall rate reached 21.7% in 2011 (P-trend < 0.001). Coverage was highest among individuals aged 65–74 years, who were female and non-Hispanic White. In the adjusted analysis, odds of vaccination decreased by age. Females (odds ratio [OR]=1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.17–1.20) and those who lived in neighborhoods with higher education attainment were more likely to be vaccinated (>75% vs. <50% adults with some college education: OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.73–1.80). Compared to Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to receive the vaccine (non-Hispanic Blacks: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.55–0.58; Hispanics: OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.58–0.60).

The zoster vaccine coverage is higher in this insured population than previously reported in the US general population, but it remains low. Significant racial/ethnic disparity was observed and worsened even among individuals with relatively equal access to zoster vaccination.

Association of vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs between parents and health care providers

Volume 31, Issue 41, Pages 4465-4688 (23 September 2013)

Association of vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs between parents and health care providers
Original Research Article
Pages 4591-4595
Michelle J. Mergler, Saad B. Omer, William K.Y. Pan, Ann Marie Navar-Boggan, Walter Orenstein, Edgar K. Marcuse, James Taylor, M. Patricia deHart, Terrell C. Carter, Anthony Damico, Neal Halsey, Daniel A. Salmon

Health care providers influence parental vaccination decisions. Over 90% of parents report receiving vaccine information from their child’s health care provider. The majority of parents of vaccinated children and children exempt from school immunization requirements report their child’s primary provider is a good source for vaccine information. The role of health care providers in influencing parents who refuse vaccines has not been fully explored. The objective of the study was to determine the association between vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs of health care providers and parents.

We surveyed parents and primary care providers of vaccinated and unvaccinated school age children in four states in 2002–2003 and 2005. We measured key immunization beliefs including perceived risks and benefits of vaccination. Odds ratios for associations between parental and provider responses were calculated using logistic regression.

Surveys were completed by 1367 parents (56.1% response rate) and 551 providers (84.3% response rate). Parents with high confidence in vaccine safety were more likely to have providers with similar beliefs, however viewpoints regarding disease susceptibility and severity and vaccine efficacy were not associated. Parents whose providers believed that children get more immunizations than are good for them had 4.6 higher odds of holding that same belief compared to parents whose providers did not have that belief.

The beliefs of children’s health care providers and parents, including those regarding vaccine safety, are similar. Provider beliefs may contribute to parental decisions to accept, delay or forgo vaccinations. Parents may selectively choose providers who have similar beliefs to their own.

From Google Scholar+ [to 7 September 2013]

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Optimal Two-Phase Vaccine Allocation to Geographically Different Regions under Uncertainty
H Yarmand, JS Ivy, B Denton, AL Lloyd – European Journal of Operational Research, 2013
Abstract In this article, we consider a decision process in which vaccination is performed in
two phases to contain the outbreak of an infectious disease in a set of geographic regions. In
the first phase, a limited number of vaccine doses are allocated to each region; in the …

[HTML] A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing HPV Vaccine Uptake in Soweto, South Africa among Adolescents and Their Caregivers
IT Katz, B Nkala, J Dietrich, M Wallace, LG Bekker… – PLOS ONE, 2013
Background In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) may
be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among
women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an …

Risk Factors for Transmission of Mumps in a Highly Vaccinated Population in Orange County, New York, 2009-2010
PK Kutty, HQ McLean, J Lawler, C Schulte, JM Hudson… – The Pediatric Infectious …, 2013
… In 2009-2010, we investigated a mumps outbreak among a highly vaccinated Orthodox Jewish population in a village in Orange County (OC), New York, to identify risk factors associated with mumps transmission among persons with two doses of mumps-containing vaccine. …

Which Newborns Missed the Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccination among US Children?
Z Zhao, TV Murphy – Preventive medicine, 2013
… Chldren who reside in states without a universal hepatitis B vaccine supply policy, are
not covered by health insurance, and have only 1 vaccination provider are significantly
associated with non-receipt of the birth dose hepatitis B vaccination. …

Achieving high and equitable coverage of adolescent HPV vaccine in Scotland
K Sinka, K Kavanagh, R Gordon, J Love, A Potts… – Journal of epidemiology and …, 2013
Abstract Background and methods The national immunisation records of over 220 000 girls
offered vaccine in the routine or catch-up programme of the Human papillomavirus (HPV)
programme in Scotland were analysed. Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling …

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake: Does HPV vaccine legislation work?
J Lin – 141st APHA Annual Meeting (November 2-November 6 …, 2013
Background Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is undoubtedly beneficial to the public’s
health, as it can largely reduce the incidence of HPV-associated cancers in the population,
yet general awareness of both the disease and vaccine remain low. Currently, 23 states …

[PDF] Communication Strategy of Importance of Vaccination using Social Media and Public Relations
N Nurlaela, H Hudrasyah – The Indonesian Journal of Business Administration, 2013