Editorial: Aboriginal Populations and Their Neglected Tropical Diseases

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
January 2014
http://www.plosntds.org/article/browseIssue.action

Editorial
Aboriginal Populations and Their Neglected Tropical Diseases
Peter J. Hotez mail
Published: January 30, 2014
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002286
http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002286;jsessionid=84447999FBEE427B6A38C560D70AF48F

Extract
Although Aboriginal people make up a small percentage of the worlds population, they are disproportionately affected by poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Unless prioritized, Aboriginal populations may be the last to receive access to essential medicines as part of global NTD elimination efforts.

An estimated 370 million people are today classified as belonging to Indigenous or Aboriginal groups [1], [2]. According to Gracey and King, included among the major criteria defining these populations are self-identification as belonging to an Indigenous group historical ties to specified geographic areas and natural resources, frequently followed by external invasion or colonization a distinct culture with beliefs and ceremonies and resolve to maintain ancestral environments and manage their own affairs [1]. However, there is not universal agreement on what constitutes an Aboriginal group, leading in some cases to exclusion or further marginalization [1]. As a whole, Aboriginal populations are disproportionately impoverished, accounting for 15 of global poverty even though they comprise only 5 of the global population [3]. Poverty, especially rural poverty, and its associated poor housing and sanitation, environmental degradation, inadequate or improper nutrition, forced migrations, and lack of access to health care, combine and synergize to create a number of adverse health consequences for Aboriginal populations [1], [2]. These include a spectrum of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (frequently related to tobacco consumption), as well as interpersonal violence and suicide often linked to alcohol and drugs [1], [2]

Budget process bottlenecks for immunization financing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Vaccine
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/32
Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 1029-1130 (19 February 2014)

Budget process bottlenecks for immunization financing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Review Article
Jean-Bernard Le Gargasson, Benoît Mibulumukini, Bradford D. Gessner, Anaïs Colombini

Abstract
Background
In Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the availability of domestic resources for the immunization program is limited and relies mostly on external donor support. DRC has introduced a series of reforms to move the country toward performance-based management and program budgets.

Methods
The objectives of the study were to: (i) describe the budget process norm, (ii) analyze the budget process in practice and associated bottlenecks at each of its phases, and (iii) collect suggestions made by the actors involved to improve the situation. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through: a review of published and gray literature, and individual interviews.

Results
Bottlenecks in the budget process and disbursement of funds for immunization are one of the causes of limited domestic resources for the program. Critical bottlenecks include: excessive use of off-budget procedures; limited human resources and capacity; lack of motivation; interference from ministries with the standard budget process; dependency toward the development partner’s disbursements schedule; and lack of budget implementation tracking. Results show that the health sector’s mobilization rate was 59% in 2011. For the credit line specific to immunization program activities, the mobilization rate for the national Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) was 26% in 2011 and 43% for vaccines (2010). The main bottleneck for the EPI budget line (2011) and vaccine budget line (2011) occurs at the authorization phase.

Discussion
Budget process bottlenecks identified in the analysis lead to a low mobilization rate for the immunization program. The bottlenecks identified show that a poor flow of funds causes an insufficient percentage of already allocated resources to reach various health system levels.

Parent attitudes about school-located influenza vaccination clinics

Vaccine
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/32
Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 1029-1130 (19 February 2014)

Parent attitudes about school-located influenza vaccination clinics
Original Research Article
Pages 1043-1048
Derek S. Brown, Sarah E. Arnold, Garrett Asay, Suchita A. Lorick, Bo-Hyun Cho, Ricardo Basurto-Davila, Mark L. Messonnier
Abstract
The use of alternative venues beyond physician offices may help to increase rates of population influenza vaccination. Schools provide a logical setting for reaching children, but most school-located vaccination (SLV) efforts to date have been limited to local areas. The potential reach and acceptability of SLV at the national level is unknown in the United States. To address this gap, we conducted a nationally representative online survey of 1088 parents of school-aged children. We estimate rates of, and factors associated with, future hypothetical parental consent for children to participate in SLV for influenza. Based on logistic regression analysis, we estimate that 51% of parents would be willing to consent to SLV for influenza. Among those who would consent, SLV was reported as more convenient than the regular location (42.1% vs. 19.9%, P < 0.001). However the regular location was preferred over SLV for the child’s well-being in case of side effects (46.4% vs. 20.9%, P < 0.001) and proper administration of the vaccine (31.0% vs. 21.0%, P < 0.001). Parents with college degrees and whose child received the 2009–2010 seasonal or 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination were more likely to consent, as were parents of uninsured children. Several measures of concern about vaccine safety were negatively associated with consent for SLV. Of those not against SLV, schools were preferred as more convenient to the regular location by college graduates, those whose child received the 2009–2010 seasonal or 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination, and those with greater travel and clinic time. With an estimated one-half of U.S. parents willing to consent to SLV, this study shows the potential to use schools for large-scale influenza vaccination programs in the U.S.

Trend in proportions of missed children during polio supplementary immunization activities in the African Region: Evidence from independent monitoring data 2010–2012

Vaccine
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/32
Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 1029-1130 (19 February 2014)

Trend in proportions of missed children during polio supplementary immunization activities in the African Region: Evidence from independent monitoring data 2010–2012
Original Research Article
Pages 1067-1071
Joseph Okeibunor, Alex Gasasira, Richard Mihigo, Mbaye Salla, Alain Poy, Godwin Orkeh, Keith Shaba, Deo Nshimirimana

Abstract
This is a comparative analysis of independent monitoring data collected between 2010 and 2012, following the implementation of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in countries in the three sub regional blocs of World Health Organization in the African Region. The sub regional blocs are Central Africa, West Africa, East and Southern Africa. In addition to the support for SIAs, the Central and West African blocs, threatened with importation and re-establishment of polio transmission received intensive coordination through weekly teleconferences. The later, East and Southern African bloc with low polio threats was not engaged in the intensive coordination through teleconferences. The key indicator of the success of SIAs is the proportion of children missed during SIAs. The results showed that generally there was a decrease in the proportion of children missed during SIAs in the region, from 7.94% in 2010 to 5.95% in 2012. However, the decrease was mainly in the Central and West African blocs. The East and Southern African bloc had countries with as much as 25% missed children. In West Africa and Central Africa, where more coordinated SIAs were conducted, there were progressive and consistent drops, from close to 20–10% at the maximum. At the country and local levels, steps were undertaken to ameliorate situation of low immunization uptake. Wherever an area is observed to have low coverage, local investigations were conducted to understand reasons for low coverage, plans to improve coverage are made and implemented in a coordinated manner. Lessons learned from close monitoring of polio eradication SIAs are will be applied to other campaigns being conducted in the African Region to accelerate control of other vaccine preventable diseases including cerebrospinal meningitis A, measles and yellow fever.

The introduction of new vaccines into developing countries. V: Will we lose a decade or more in the introduction of dengue vaccines to developing countries?

Vaccine
Volume 32, Issue 8, Pages 897-1028 (12 February 2014)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/32/8

The introduction of new vaccines into developing countries. V: Will we lose a decade or more in the introduction of dengue vaccines to developing countries?
Review Article
Richard Mahoney
Abstract
Dengue results in as many as 390 million infections annually and causes significant morbidity. A number of efforts are underway to develop vaccines against dengue. The public sector is undertaking efforts to create an enabling environment for vaccine introduction. Recent work by Brooks et al. provides a framework for analyzing which efforts should be undertaken before licensure. They conclude that actions before licensure are required to eliminate the decade or more it normally takes to introduce new vaccines into developing countries. We apply their methodology to dengue and identify a number of critical areas where public sector actions before licensure can greatly accelerate vaccine uptake.

From Google Scholar+ [to 1 February 2014]

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Delay and Refusal of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Girls, National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2010
C Dorell, D Yankey, J Jeyarajah, S Stokley, A Fisher… – Clinical Pediatrics, 2014
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine’s effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune diseases
P Pellegrino, C Carnovale, M Pozzi, S Antoniazzi… – Autoimmunity Reviews, 2014
Abstract The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines were introduced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The bivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16,-18,-31,-33 and-45 while the quadrivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16, 18, 31, 6 and 11 types. …

Advances in understanding of norovirus as a food-and waterborne pathogen and progress with vaccine development.
DJ Allen, M Iturriza-Gómara, DWG Brown, N Cook – Viruses in food and water: risks …, 2013
Abstract Noroviruses are the commonest cause of infectious intestinal disease, and are frequently associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis, mainly in healthcare-associated settings, but also in outbreaks associated with contaminated food and/or water. The …