From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary
Value in Health Regional Issues
Volume 3, Pages 146-155
Economic Impact of Pneumococcal Protein-D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Malaysian National Immunization Programme
Syed Aljunid, Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Zafar Ahmed, Amrizal Muhammad Nur, Zaleha Md Isa, Soraya Azmi, Saperi Sulong
To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group–based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.
The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).
It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.
European Scientific Journal
May 2014 edition vol.10, No.15 ISSN: 1857 – 7881
[PDF] PROGRESS TOWARDS MEASLES ELIMINATION IN MOROCCO
Touria Benamar, National Institute of Hygiene / Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco; Amal Alla
Imad Cherkaoui, Epidemiology Department / Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco; Latifa Tajounte, Ahmed Laskri, National Institute of Hygiene / Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco; Moncef Ziani, Epidemiology Department / Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco; Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco; Rajae El Aouad, National Institute of Hygiene / Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco; School of Medicine and Pharmacy. University Mohamed V Souissi
In order to eliminate measles in Morocco, a mass vaccination campaign targeting children aged from 9 months to14 years was conducted on May-June 2008. The vaccination coverage was estimated to be 99%. This study aims to assess the impact of the measles mass vaccination campaign on measles incidence based on sensitive surveillance system. For this purpose, a laboratory case-based surveillance was set up during 2010. Epidemiological definition of suspected measles cases was fixed. Specimens were collected through all primary health centers and hospitals at national level and suspected cases were confirmed by serological tests. Measles strains isolated during outbreaks were genotyped. The performance of the surveillance system was evaluated according to the World Health Organization indicators. The incidence was calculated based on the epidemiological surveillance data, and compared to the World Health Organization incidence, which is 1 case per million per year. 1214 suspected cases were notified and 1083 measles samples were analyzed and 45 % (491/1083) were serologically confirmed and 115 cases were confirmed by epidemiological linkage. Molecular 228 epidemiology shows that genotype D4 is endemic since 2008. The WHO indicators show that the sensitivity of surveillance system is low. Despite this weak sensitivity, epidemiological data show that measles incidence is higher than that recommended by WHO, and reached 19.18/1,000,000. In conclusions, Measles mass campaign did not reach the goal expected. A second mass campaign should be planned in the near future to eliminate the disease in the country.
May 28, 2014 1941874414533352
Poliomyelitis Historical Facts, Epidemiology, and Current Challenges in Eradication
Man Mohan Mehndiratta, MD, DM, MNAMS, FAMS, FRCP1 Prachi Mehndiratta, MD2, Renuka Pande, MD3
1Department of Neurology, Janakpuri Superspeciality Hospital, Janakpuri, New Delhi, India
2Department of Neurology, subspecialty division Vascular neurology-StrokeDepartment of Neurology, subspecialty division Vascular neurology-Stroke, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
3Department of Microbiology, Janakpuri Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Janakpuri Superspeciality Hospital, C-2/B, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110058, India.
Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family. It finds a mention even in ancient Egyptian paintings and carvings. The clinical features are varied ranging from mild cases of respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and malaise to severe forms of paralysis. These have been categorized into inapparent infection without symptoms, mild illness (abortive poliomyelitis), aseptic meningitis (nonparalytic poliomyelitis), and paralytic poliomyelitis. This disease has been associated with crippling deformities affecting thousands of lives throughout the world. Only due to the perseverance and determination of great scientists in 1900s, the genomic structure of the virus and its pathogenesis could be elucidated. Contribution of Salk and Sabin in the form of vaccines—oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine—heralded a scientific revolution. In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) Region of The Americas was certified polio free followed by the WHO Western Pacific Region in 2000 and the WHO European Region in June 2002 of the 3 types of wild poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3). In 2013, only 3 countries remained polio endemic—Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Global eradication of polio is imperative else the threat of an outbreak will hover forever. Today, all the governments of the world in collaboration with WHO stand unified in their fight against poliomyelitis and the task when achieved will pave the way for eliminating other infections in future.