POLIO [to 5 December 2015]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
GPEI Update: Polio this week as of 2 December 2015
:: The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) reaffirmed their commitment to poliovirus eradication, urged all countries affected by polio to implement their National Emergency Action Plans, and called for the necessary financial resources to finish the job, at the Fifth Session of the Islamic Conference of Health Ministers.
:: Commonwealth leaders united in Malta to recommit to ending polio. The theme of this year’s Commonwealth meeting was ‘Adding Global Value’. Eradicating polio will not only be a major public health success, it will also mean global savings of more than US$50 billion over the next 20 years.
:: Polio surveillance continues to improve in Afghanistan. Strengthening the surveillance networks to ensure that any poliovirus transmission is detected remains vital to the success of the polio endgame.
:: In Afghanistan in the year 2015, until 21 November, stool specimens from a total 2,399 children were tested. By then, 16 of these children had been found to be infected with wild poliovirus.
:: In 2015, wild poliovirus transmission is at the lowest levels ever, with fewer cases reported from fewer areas of fewer countries than ever before. In 2015 so far, 60 wild poliovirus cases have been reported from two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan), compared to 316 cases from nine countries during the same period in 2014
[Selected elements from Country-level reports]
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, in Kunar province, with onset of paralysis on 3 November. This is the first case in Kunar province since January 2014. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is 17.
:: One new WPV1 environmental positive sample was reported in the past week, collected on 25 October from Mandacool district of Asadabad province.
:: Two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week, the first with onset of paralysis on 30 October in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the second with onset on 2 November in Sindh province. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now 43.
:: Three new environmental samples positive for WPV1 were reported in the last week, one each from Jacobabad, Peshawar and Karachi, from samples collected on 4, 11 and 15 November respectively.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
:: One new case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) was reported in the past week. The case was reported from Saysomboun district in Xaysomboune province, and had onset of paralysis on 28 October. This is the most recent date of onset. The total number of cVDPV1 cases in 2015 is now five. Outbreaks of cVDPVs can arise in areas with low population immunity, emphasizing the importance of maintaining strong vaccination coverage. Learn more about VDPVs.
:: An emergency outbreak response is continuing in the country, with particular focus on three high-risk provinces. The first Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) targeted an expanded age group of children under the age of fifteen in the three most high risk districts, and children under the age of ten elsewhere. According to independent monitoring conducted in the high-risk areas, coverage of 85-95% was achieved, with 5-15%…
:: In neighbouring countries, notably Thailand and Vietnam, both surveillance and immunization activities have been stepped up, particularly in border areas.
UN: Polio Outbreak in Ukraine Is a State of Emergency
By The Associated Press
KIEV, Ukraine — Dec 1, 2015, 11:24 AM ET
The World Health Organization is urging Ukraine’s health ministry to declare a state of emergency due to a polio outbreak, a move meant to prompt more action from the government in Kiev.
In September, Ukraine announced two polio cases — the first in Europe since 2010.
The U.N. health agency recommended that Ukraine declare a state of emergency and “respond to the polio outbreak as quickly and effectively as possible,” Dorit Nitzan, head of the WHO’s office in Ukraine, told journalists.
Half of Ukraine’s children have not been vaccinated against polio…
Building Bridges for Healthier Ummah
Draft Resolution No. 2/5-ICHM – On Healthy Life Style, Prevention and Control of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases, and Health Emergencies and Disasters
The Fifth Session of the Islamic Conference of Health Ministers held in Istanbul, Republic of Turkey, from 17 to19 November, 2015;
[Excerpt from Resolution]
3. Reaffirms the support of all OIC Member States for the goal of global polio eradication and the full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-18 to protect all children from life-long polio paralysis;
4. Calls upon the polio affected countries to fully implement their National Emergency Action Plans for polio eradication and ensure that all children are consistently reached and vaccinated; effective implementation of vaccination campaigns will require regular oversight of polio eradication efforts by Government leaders, and a “whole of Government” approach to raise community awareness, address concerns, and successfully and safely access and vaccinate all children;
5. Reiterates its support for the religious injunctions (Fatwas) of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy regarding the safety and acceptability in Islam of polio vaccination and declaring it a duty of all parents and communities to protect children and to allow health workers to carry out their duty in safety;
6. Calls on the International Islamic Fiqh Academy and the Islamic Advisory Group (IAG) on polio eradication to continue to work closely with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, polio-affected Members States and religious and community leaders to help address challenges regarding community perceptions on vaccinations, on the safety and acceptance of vaccines, and to help secure access to all children for immunization;
7. Calls upon all Member States and international development partners, including the Islamic Development Bank (IDB), the Saudi Fund for Development, and philanthropic organizations, in particular those in the Islamic world, to provide the necessary financial support to eradicate polio from the remaining OIC Member States and to help strengthen routine immunization efforts;
8. Further calls upon the Member States to work towards the SDG target of ending, by 2030, the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases…
First doses of Injectable Polio Vaccine ShanIPV™ soon available for Indian infants
November 30, 2015
– This new polio vaccine is manufactured by Shantha in Hyderabad, India –
– Both Sanofi Pasteur and Shantha are to provide the majority of doses for the introduction of IPV in India, a key step towards polio eradication
Lyon, France – November 30, 2015 – Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, announced today that the first shipment of ShanIPV™, a brand new injectable, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) manufactured by its affiliate Shantha Biotechnics, in Hyderabad, India, will occur in a couple of days. These first vaccine doses will be available to implement one dose of IPV in India’s immunization schedule for all infants.
Today, India is officially introducing IPV in their national immunization schedule, to supplement the iconic “drops on sugar” of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Over 20 million newborns will eventually benefit from this new vaccine every year. This is a critical step towards a polio-free future, a prospect that is now very close. India’s 2014 certification as polio-free reassured experts that the decades-long global fight against polio was finally drawing to an end. Sanofi Pasteur and its affiliate Shantha Biotechnics will together produce most of India’s IPV supply.
“With the introduction of IPV in their immunization schedule, India moves the world much closer to being polio-free”, said Olivier Charmeil, President and CEO of Sanofi Pasteur. “As a company deeply rooted in India, we are very proud that vaccines produced by both Sanofi Pasteur and Shantha will be used in this vital step towards a polio-free world. We have worked as partners of the government of India for many years, with this day in mind.”
Only two countries in the world are still classified as polio endemic, meaning that wild polio virus passes routinely between members of the community. However, great progress has been made in both countries and the last case of polio in the world may possibly be only months away. “Ours will be the last generation to see the horror of children paralyzed or killed by polio. I am sure,” said Pr Jacob John (Former Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India). “Maybe we will remember 2015 as the year we took the final step to eradicate this disease forever.”…
Introduction Of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) In Nepal
A PUBLIC HEALTH MILESTONE FOR POLIO FREE NEPAL
DECEMBER, 2015 :: 48 pages
This publication has been jointly authored by Child Health Division, Department of Health Services, UNICEF and WHO. It captures a comprehensive process of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) introduction in Nepal. In September 2014, Nepal introduced one dose of Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine (IPV) at 14 weeks of age into its national routine immunization schedule. In doing so, Nepal became the first country in South Asia – and the first GAVI-supported country in the world to do so.
This document describes the process leading to the introduction of IPV in Nepal. Introduction of a new vaccine into a country consists of numerous steps and support/endorsement from multiple stakeholders at the policy level. In addition to lessons from previous introductions, Nepal utilized a policy framework developed by Orin, et al. (2010) which is based on the existing set of WHO guidelines for new vaccine introduction and the experience with acceleration the introduction of Hib, pneumococcal and rota virus vaccine. The proposed framework is based on observations of the process and drivers of new vaccine adoption in GAVI-eligible countries such as Nepal.