Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
Published Date – 26 Sep 2019
DR Congo: Vaccine campaign for world’s largest measles outbreak
…More than 800,000 children are to be targeted for vaccination in the Democratic… to every part of the country.

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
How to get adequate and sustainable finance for health in Africa
24 September 2019
By Peter Sands, Muhammad Ali Pate and Seth Berkley

Drones deployed in Africa’s ‘leapfrog’ vaccine drive
23 September 2019

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
Health
Report: No-Deal Brexit Could Leave UK With Medical Shortages
Britain’s government watchdog says there’s still a “significant amount” of work to do to make sure the country has an adequate supply of licensed drugs in case of a no-deal Brexit.
By The Associated Press
Sept. 27

Health
Health Experts Fight Ebola in Congo, and Each Other
As the epidemic rages in a violent, embattled region, two important players — the World Health Organization and Doctors Without Borders — clash over how to end it.
By Denise Grady
Sept. 23

Health
How Anti-Vaccine Sentiment Took Hold in the United States
As families face back-to-school medical requirements this month, the country feels the impact of a vaccine resistance movement decades in the making.
By Jan Hoffman
Sept. 23

 

Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
2nd Ebola vaccine to be used in Congo, as UN efforts slammed
Maria Cheng | AP · Foreign · Sep 23, 2019

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Center for Global Development
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
Report
Enhancing U.S. Leadership in a New Era of Global Immunization
September 27, 2019 | By Nellie Bristol, Michaela Simoneau, Katherine Bliss

On Demand Event
Securing Healthy Populations in a New Era of Global Immunization
September 27, 2019

 

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 28 Sep 2019
[No new relevant content]

Gavi at the UNGA: People, planet and prosperity

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

Gavi at the UNGA: People, planet and prosperity
19 September 2019
At the 74th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), high-level government, UN and civil society representatives will gather in New York to assess progress on the Sustainable Development Goals, just as converging threats to the planet and people are calling for urgent attention.

UNGA74 High Level Messages
World leaders will gather this September at the 2019 United Nations General Assembly as converging threats to the planet and people are calling for urgent attention. The cumulative effects of population growth and displacement, climate and other environmental changes, increasing fragility, recurrent disease outbreaks, and insufficient investment into public goods, are threatening to reverse global progress in development over the last two decades. With rising inequality, the world’s most vulnerable people, including women and girls, are the ones most affected by these crises. At the same time the world is at a pivotal moment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the UNGA this year, Heads of State will review the progress of the SDGs for the first time this year, and as we move towards a decade of delivery on the SDGs, valuable opportunities exist to increase the ambition and commitment for a collective response that would trigger multiple SDGs and advance their implementation at a much greater scale.

Please find below for your consideration some high-level messages from Gavi that you may want to consider for inclusion in your interventions and engagement at UNGA74:

Climate Action Summit
:: Climate change impacts health and wellbeing, particularly of marginalised communities. Climate change is expected to contribute to the spread and prevalence of vector- and waterborne diseases that are climate-sensitive such as yellow fever, malaria and cholera. By 2030, malaria alone will claim an additional 60,000 lives annually due to the effects of climate change

:: Vaccines prevent diseases, outbreaks, and are a tool for climate change adaptation. By preventing outbreaks in the first place, routine immunisation is a key safeguard against vaccine -preventable diseases caused by environmental crises and climate impacts

:: Strengthen health system resilience through primary health care. Sustainable and resilient health systems, with primary health care as its cornerstone can help communities – particularly the poorest and most marginalised, adapt to climate impacts and build resilience for the future

UN High-level Meeting on Universal Health Coverage
:: Strengthen primary healthcare (PHC) for Universal Health Coverage (UHC). PHC is a cornerstone of a sustainable health system for UHC and the health-related SDGs. Immunisation provides a well-developed and far reaching platform for countries’ to strengthen PHC in support of UHC.

:: More money for health, more health for the money. By 2030, countries should increase public spending to achieve full coverage of PHC services and ensure their efficient and equitable allocation through good health sector governance

:: Prioritise reaching the furthest behind first with basic package of PHC services. In order to leave no one behind with quality universal health coverage, countries should first reach those furthest behind – people living in urban centres, remote areas and conflict settings, with high impact PHC services such as immunisation

:: Vaccines prevent antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR poses a formidable challenge to achieving UHC. Universal coverage of vaccines will help significantly reduce the use and misuse of antibiotics, preventing the emergence and spread of AMR

High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development under the General Assembly
:: Gavi’s collaborative approach is a model for partnerships to accelerate SDGs. Since 2000, Gavi’s public private partnership model has successfully leveraged its flexible funding mechanisms, donor financing, leadership of implementing countries, technical and delivery skills of partners including CSOs, and the know-how and in-kind contributions of the private sector, to achieve more than the sum of its parts

:: Immunisation contributes to most SDGs. Every US$ 1 invested in immunisation generates a return of US$ 54 in broader societal benefits, making immunisation an enabler for social and economic development. As immunised communities are healthier, parents can work and avert productivity loss and healthcare cost. The next generation, both boys and girls, can go to school and grow up to become more productive members of society

:: Equitable access to quality PHC is a cornerstone to peace and security. Strong PHC including routine immunisation safeguard public health in support of adaptation to climate impacts, build society’s resilience and maintain trust in public institutions and services

High-level Dialogue on Financing for Development
:: Collaboration for sustainable financing for health through Global Action Plan where it adds value for greater, faster and wider impact. Through Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All (GAP), twelve multilateral agencies, including Gavi, have developed new ways of working together to accelerate progress towards health-related SDGs in alignment with national sustainable development strategies. Gavi co-led the accelerator on sustainable financing to help countries rapidly improve the generation, allocation, and use of funds for health

:: Innovative financing mechanisms for long-term, predictable funding. Innovative financing mechanisms such as the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm) can play an important catalytic role in helping address the financing needs for the SDGs by tapping into new sources and engaging investors as partners and stakeholders in development

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 21 September 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_21 Sep 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

A World at Risk: Annual Report on Global preparedness for health emergencies

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

A World at Risk: Annual Report on Global preparedness for health emergencies
Global Preparedness Monitoring Board
Sep 2019 :: 48 pages :: Download the full report here

From the foreword by Co-Chairs H.E. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland and Mr Elhadj As Sy:
“For its first report, the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board reviewed recommendations from previous high-level panels and commissions following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak, along with its own commissioned reports and other data.

“The result is a snapshot of where the world stands in its ability to prevent and contain a global health threat. Many of the recommendations reviewed were poorly implemented, or not implemented at all, and serious gaps persist. For too long, we have allowed a cycle of panic and neglect when it comes to pandemics: we ramp up efforts when there is a serious threat, then quickly forget about them when the threat subsides. It is well past time to act.”

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: ACTIONS FOR LEADERS TO TAKE
[1] Heads of government must commit and invest.
Heads of government in every country must commit to preparedness by implementing their binding obligations under the International Health Regulations (IHR (2005). They must prioritize and dedicate domestic resources and recurrent spending for preparedness as an integral part of national and global security, universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

 

[2] Countries and regional organizations must lead by example.
G7, G20 and G77 Member States, and regional intergovernmental organizations must follow through on their political and funding commitments for preparedness and agree to routinely monitor progress during their annual meetings.

 

[3] All countries must build strong systems.
Heads of government must appoint a national high-level coordinator with authority and political accountability to lead whole-of-government and whole-of-society approaches, and routinely conduct multisectoral simulation exercises to establish and maintain effective preparedness. They must prioritize community involvement in all preparedness efforts, building trust and engaging multiple stakeholders (e.g. legislators; representatives of the human and animal health, security and foreign affairs sectors; the private sector; local leaders; and women and youth).

 

[4] Countries, donors and multilateral institutions must be prepared for the worst.
A rapidly spreading pandemic due to a lethal respiratory pathogen (whether naturally emergent or accidentally or deliberately released) poses additional preparedness requirements. Donors and multilateral institutions must ensure adequate investment in developing innovative vaccines and therapeutics, surge manufacturing capacity, broad-spectrum antivirals and appropriate non-pharmaceutical interventions. All countries must develop a system for immediately sharing genome sequences of any new pathogen for public health purposes along with the means to share limited medical countermeasures across countries.

 

[5] Financing institutions must link preparedness with economic risk planning.
To mitigate the severe economic impacts of a national or regional epidemic and/or a global pandemic, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank must urgently renew their efforts to integrate preparedness into economic risk and institutional assessments, including the IMF’s next cycle of Article IV consultations with countries and the World Bank’s next Systematic Country Diagnostics for International Development Association (IDA) credits and grants. Funding replenishments of the IDA, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (Global Fund), and Gavi should include explicit commitments regarding preparedness.

 

[6] Development assistance funders must create incentives and increase funding for preparedness.
Donors, international financing institutions, global funds and philanthropies must increase funding for the poorest and most vulnerable countries through development assistance for health and greater/earlier access to the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund to close financing gaps for their national actions plans for health security as a joint responsibility and a global public good. Member states need to agree to an increase in WHO contributions for the financing of preparedness and response activities and must sustainably fund the WHO Contingency Fund for Emergencies, including the establishment of a replenishment scheme using funding from the revised World Bank Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility.

 

[7] The United Nations must strengthen coordination mechanisms.
The Secretary General of the United Nations, with WHO and United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), must strengthen coordination in different country, health and humanitarian emergency contexts, by ensuring clear United Nations systemwide roles and responsibilities; rapidly resetting preparedness and response strategies during health emergencies; and, enhancing United Nations system leadership for preparedness, including through routine simulation exercises. WHO should introduce an approach to mobilize the wider national, regional and international community at earlier stages of an outbreak, prior to a declaration of an IHR (2005) Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Gavi at the UNGA: People, planet and prosperity :: UNGA74 High Level Messages

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Gavi at the UNGA: People, planet and prosperity
19 September 2019
At the 74th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), high-level government, UN and civil society representatives will gather in New York to assess progress on the Sustainable Development Goals, just as converging threats to the planet and people are calling for urgent attention.

UNGA74 High Level Messages
World leaders will gather this September at the 2019 United Nations General Assembly as converging threats to the planet and people are calling for urgent attention. The cumulative effects of population growth and displacement, climate and other environmental changes, increasing fragility, recurrent disease outbreaks, and insufficient investment into public goods, are threatening to reverse global progress in development over the last two decades. With rising inequality, the world’s most vulnerable people, including women and girls, are the ones most affected by these crises. At the same time the world is at a pivotal moment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the UNGA this year, Heads of State will review the progress of the SDGs for the first time this year, and as we move towards a decade of delivery on the SDGs, valuable opportunities exist to increase the ambition and commitment for a collective response that would trigger multiple SDGs and advance their implementation at a much greater scale.

Please find below for your consideration some high-level messages from Gavi that you may want to consider for inclusion in your interventions and engagement at UNGA74:

 

Climate Action Summit
:: Climate change impacts health and wellbeing, particularly of marginalised communities. Climate change is expected to contribute to the spread and prevalence of vector- and waterborne diseases that are climate-sensitive such as yellow fever, malaria and cholera. By 2030, malaria alone will claim an additional 60,000 lives annually due to the effects of climate change

:: Vaccines prevent diseases, outbreaks, and are a tool for climate change adaptation. By preventing outbreaks in the first place, routine immunisation is a key safeguard against vaccine -preventable diseases caused by environmental crises and climate impacts

:: Strengthen health system resilience through primary health care. Sustainable and resilient health systems, with primary health care as its cornerstone can help communities – particularly the poorest and most marginalised, adapt to climate impacts and build resilience for the future

 

UN High-level Meeting on Universal Health Coverage
:: Strengthen primary healthcare (PHC) for Universal Health Coverage (UHC). PHC is a cornerstone of a sustainable health system for UHC and the health-related SDGs. Immunisation provides a well-developed and far reaching platform for countries’ to strengthen PHC in support of UHC.

:: More money for health, more health for the money. By 2030, countries should increase public spending to achieve full coverage of PHC services and ensure their efficient and equitable allocation through good health sector governance

:: Prioritise reaching the furthest behind first with basic package of PHC services. In order to leave no one behind with quality universal health coverage, countries should first reach those furthest behind – people living in urban centres, remote areas and conflict settings, with high impact PHC services such as immunisation

:: Vaccines prevent antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR poses a formidable challenge to achieving UHC. Universal coverage of vaccines will help significantly reduce the use and misuse of antibiotics, preventing the emergence and spread of AMR

 

High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development under the General Assembly
:: Gavi’s collaborative approach is a model for partnerships to accelerate SDGs. Since 2000, Gavi’s public private partnership model has successfully leveraged its flexible funding mechanisms, donor financing, leadership of implementing countries, technical and delivery skills of partners including CSOs, and the know-how and in-kind contributions of the private sector, to achieve more than the sum of its parts

:: Immunisation contributes to most SDGs. Every US$ 1 invested in immunisation generates a return of US$ 54 in broader societal benefits, making immunisation an enabler for social and economic development. As immunised communities are healthier, parents can work and avert productivity loss and healthcare cost. The next generation, both boys and girls, can go to school and grow up to become more productive members of society

:: Equitable access to quality PHC is a cornerstone to peace and security. Strong PHC including routine immunisation safeguard public health in support of adaptation to climate impacts, build society’s resilience and maintain trust in public institutions and services

 

High-level Dialogue on Financing for Development
:: Collaboration for sustainable financing for health through Global Action Plan where it adds value for greater, faster and wider impact. Through Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All (GAP), twelve multilateral agencies, including Gavi, have developed new ways of working together to accelerate progress towards health-related SDGs in alignment with national sustainable development strategies. Gavi co-led the accelerator on sustainable financing to help countries rapidly improve the generation, allocation, and use of funds for health

:: Innovative financing mechanisms for long-term, predictable funding. Innovative financing mechanisms such as the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm) can play an important catalytic role in helping address the financing needs for the SDGs by tapping into new sources and engaging investors as partners and stakeholders in development

Global Fund Partnership has Saved 32 Million Lives

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Global Fund Partnership has Saved 32 Million Lives
19 September 2019
GENEVA – Programs supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria have saved 32 million lives, according to a report released today. The Results Report 2019 shows great progress against some of the biggest challenges in the fight against the three diseases, while highlighting new threats.

The report includes key annual results achieved in countries where the Global Fund invests:
:: 18.9 million people received antiretroviral therapy for HIV;
:: 719,000 HIV-positive mothers received medicine to keep them alive and prevent transmitting HIV to their babies;
:: 5.3 million people tested and treated for TB;
:
131 million mosquito nets distributed to protect families from malaria.
“This year’s Results Report shows clearly why we must step up the fight against HIV, TB and malaria,” said Peter Sands, Executive Director of the Global Fund. “We’ve made extraordinary progress, but we still face very daunting challenges that we have to overcome to reach the SDG 3 target of ending the epidemics.”…

Results Report 2019
Our Results Report 2019 delivers a summary of the results achieved through the end of 2018 in countries where the Global Fund invests.
Full Report – download in English | Français
Summary – download in English | Español | Français
Note on Global Fund Programmatic Results 19 September 2019

President Donald J. Trump Is Working to Modernize and Improve Influenza Vaccines

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

The White House [U.S.] Fact Sheet
President Donald J. Trump Is Working to Modernize and Improve Influenza Vaccines
Issued on: September 19, 2019
[text bolding per original]5/

 

MODERNIZING INFLUENZA VACCINES: President Donald J. Trump is safeguarding public health by helping ensure Americans have access to effective influenza vaccines. 
Today, President Trump signed an executive order to modernize influenza vaccines and help protect more Americans through vaccination.

At President Trump’s direction, the Administration will work to promote new technologies to improve vaccine manufacturing and effectiveness.
:: This will reduce reliance on more time-consuming, egg-based vaccine production.
:: Improving the speed of production will enable experts to better match vaccines to actively circulating viruses, an important piece of making the vaccines more effective.
:: The Administration will advance the development of new, more effective vaccines.

The Trump Administration will also work to increase Americans’ access to vaccines by reducing barriers to seasonal flu vaccine services.

To help put these objectives into action, President Trump is establishing a task force to identify policy priorities and monitor progress.

 

PROTECTING LIVES THROUGH PREVENTION: Influenza vaccines are vitally important to disease prevention, yet current production methods need to be improved.
Influenza vaccines are the best way to save lives, reduce the illness severity, and prevent influenza infections in the first place.
:: During the 2017–2018 flu season, influenza vaccinations prevented up to 7.1 million illnesses, 3.7 million medical visits, and 109,000 hospitalizations.
:: A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study found that vaccines prevented more than 40,000 flu-associated deaths over a nine-year period.

It is especially important to be able to rapidly produce well-matched influenza vaccines using scalable technologies in the event of a future influenza pandemic.

Despite their important role in safeguarding the health of the American people, influenza vaccines are currently produced using more time-consuming, egg-based technology.
:: More rapid non-egg-based production methods would give experts more time to select the most relevant strains.

 

PROMOTING PUBLIC HEALTH: Improving the influenza vaccine is part of President Trump’s longstanding effort to combat public health threats and promote quality care for all Americans.
President Trump has released a National Biodefense Strategy and a Global Health Security Strategy to help combat biological threats and pandemics.

President Trump has made it a priority to increase the quality and accessibility of care for American patients.
:: This year, the President launched a kidney health initiative to help prevent kidney failure, improve treatment options, and expand access to life-saving transplants.
:: Trump Administration is working to encourage new, innovative approaches to treating childhood cancer.
:: President Trump launched an initiative to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in America over the next decade.
:: The Administration is supporting research on new treatments for opioid addiction.

Emergencies

Emergencies

Ebola – DRC+
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo 19 September 2019
The intensity of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo increased slightly from last week, with 57 new confirmed cases reported in North Kivu and Ituri provinces from 11-17 September 2019 versus 40 in the previous week. In the past week, localised, minor security incidents have impacted the response, including safe and dignified burials (SDB) and vaccination activities in Mambasa and Komanda Health Zones.

In addition, there was a major security incident in Lwemba, within Mandima Health Zone, from 14-17 September. The event was a community response to the death of a local healthcare worker from EVD. Due to the violence that occurred during the incident, all activities have been suspended in the area until further notice. This has a serious impact on the response activities on the ground, and it could lead to gaps or delays in the reporting of new EVD cases in this hotspot area. Overall, these incidents underscore the need for continued and proactive engagement and sensitizing of local communities throughout areas with EVD transmission and high-risk areas that may not currently be affected…

::::::
::::::

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 18 September 2019
:: In the Philippines, a case of vaccine-derived poliovirus has been detected and is being further investigated, as outbreak response will be implemented.  See ‘Philippines’ section below for further details.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan — six wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1)- positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria — one circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) case;
:: Angola — seven cVDPV2 cases

::::::

WHO, UNICEF and partners support Philippine Department of Health’s polio outbreak response
19 September 2019
Joint News Release
The Philippine Department of Health (DOH) today announced an outbreak of polio in the country. A poliovirus case was confirmed on 16 September 2019 in a 3-year-old girl from Lanao del Sur. In addition, environmental samples from sewage in Manila and waterways in Davao were confirmed to contain the virus.

“We are very concerned that polioviruses are now circulating in Manila, Davao, and Lanao del Sur,” said World Health Organization (WHO) Representative in the Philippines, Dr Rabindra Abeyasinghe. “WHO and UNICEF are working closely with the Department of Health to strengthen surveillance and swiftly respond to this outbreak. We urge all parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age to have them vaccinated so that they are protected against polio for life.”

“It is deeply disconcerting that poliovirus has re-emerged in the Philippines after nearly two decades. The outbreak calls for urgent action to protect more children from being infected. It reminds us of the importance of increasing immunization coverage to 95% of children to stop polio virus transmission in the Philippines. Vaccination is the only and best protection against polio that mainly affects children under 5 years of age. As long as one single child remains infected, children across the country and even beyond are at risk of contracting polio,” said Oyun Dendevnorov, UNICEF Philippines Representative, “UNICEF is working with Department of Health and WHO to accelerate actions for the health and safety of children in the Philippines, especially in the affected regions.”

::::::
::::::

Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 21 Sep 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo 19 September 2019

Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 21 Sep 2019]

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Burkina Faso [in French] – No new digest announcements identified
Burundi – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
HIV in Pakistan – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
Measles in Europe – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 21 Sep 2019]

Kenya
:: Kenya rolls out landmark malaria vaccine introduction 16 September 2019

Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

WHO & Regional Offices [to 21 Sep 2019]

WHO & Regional Offices [to 21 Sep 2019]
News release
More women and children survive today than ever before – UN report
Despite progress, a pregnant woman or newborn dies somewhere in the world every 11 seconds
19 September 2019 New York | Geneva
More women and their children are surviving today than ever before, according to new child and maternal mortality estimates released today by United Nations groups* led by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Since 2000, child deaths have reduced by nearly half and maternal deaths by over one-third, mostly due to improved access to affordable, quality health services…

 

::::::

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 20 September 2019, vol. 94, 38 (pp. 425–440)
:: Global update on implementation of preventive chemotherapy against neglected tropical diseases in 2018
:: Monthly report on dracunculiasis cases, January- July 2019

 

::::::

WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: Government urges private and public health facilities to enforce best practices in vaccines…
20 September 2019
:: Speeding up detection to slow down Ebola: Smartphone app is game-changer for contact…
18 September 2019
:: Tanzanian authorities inform WHO they have no cases of Ebola 18 September 2019
:: Bauchi State Governor initiates Yellow Fever campaign targeting 500,000 people
17 September 2019

WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
:: PAHO prepares for the UN High-level Meeting on Universal Health Coverage (09/21/2019)
:: Brazil and Paraguay launch campaign to intensify vaccination in border areas (09/17/2019)
Brazil and Paraguay have launched a campaign to intensify vaccination in the border areas to increase coverage against measles, yellow fever and other diseases in the border cities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
No new digest content identified.

WHO European Region EURO
:: WHO/Europe and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies renew commitment to jointly support countries to achieve health for all 19-09-2019
:: RC69 opens on 16 September with review of progress in public health 13-09-2019
WHO/Europe’s annual governance meeting, RC69 takes place on 16–19 September 2019. Over 500 delegates will reflect on a decade of public health progress, and discuss key issues including health equity, health literacy and accelerating primary health care. This year’s session also includes the election of the new WHO Regional Director for Europe.

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
No new digest content identified.

WHO Western Pacific Region
:: WHO, UNICEF and partners support Philippine Department of Health’s polio outbreak response 19 September 2019
[See Milestones above for detail]

MMWR News Synopsis for Friday, September 20, 2019 Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — 23 Urban Areas, 2017

CDC/ACIP [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html
Latest News
No new digest content identified.

MMWR News Synopsis for Friday, September 20, 2019
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — 23 Urban Areas, 2017
To expand use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), interventions to increase PrEP awareness, should encourage health care providers to discuss PrEP, destigmatize PrEP use, and promote racial/ethnic equity in PrEP access. PrEP is a daily oral pill that reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV by about 99% when taken daily as prescribed. Black men and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are significantly less likely than white MSM to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider. Increased use of PrEP would help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence rates among MSM and support the “U.S. Ending HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America” initiative. CDC analyzed data from more than 10,100 interviews with MSM at high risk for HIV in 23 U.S. cities. The analysis found white MSM (58%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic (44%) and Black (43%) MSM to have reported they discussed PrEP with a health care provider in the past year. A little more than half (55%) of the Black MSM who reported they discussed PrEP with their health care provider also reported they used PrEP, compared with about two-thirds of those who were Hispanic (62%) and who were white (68%). These findings highlight the critical need to address racial and ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, PrEP discussions with health care providers, and PrEP use among MSM.

Consultative Meeting of the Africa Collaborative to Advance Diagnostics to meet the Continent’s Health Agenda

Africa CDC [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.africacdc.org/
News
Consultative Meeting of the Africa Collaborative to Advance Diagnostics to meet the Continent’s Health Agenda
17 September 2019
BACKGROUND   Africa’s move towards greater integration requires a strong public health strategy. In 2015, the African Union Commission (AUC) developed the Africa Health Strategy 2016-2030, which offers a cohesive and consolidative platform encompassing all commitments in the health sector and provides strategic direction to Member States in their efforts to create better performing health systems. It recognizes existing continental and global commitments and addresses key challenges to reduce Africa’s burden of disease.

China CDC

China CDC
http://www.chinacdc.cn/en/
No new digest content identified.

 

National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China
http://en.nhc.gov.cn/
Selected Updates and Press Releases
China sees progresses of community-level healthcare
2019-09-16
Community-level medical infrastructures and ranks of medical workers have been achieving development in recent years, according to the National Health Commission (NHC).

Over 85 mln rural women receive free cervical cancer checks: white paper
2019-09-20
More than 85 million women living in rural China have received free cervical cancer screening services by the end of 2018, said a white paper published by the State Council Information Office on Sept 19.
Free breast cancer screening services were also offered to 20 million rural women by the end of last year, according to the white paper, titled “Equality, Development and Sharing: Progress of Women’s Cause in 70 Years Since New China’s Founding”.

Announcements

Announcements

 

Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://alleninstitute.org/what-we-do/frontiers-group/news-press/
News
How the gut keeps time — and keeps us healthy
September 18, 2019
New study identifies brain-intestine circadian signals that could underlie health problems related to night shift work and poor sleep

 

BMGF – Gates Foundation [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
SEPTEMBER 17, 2019
Gates Foundation Report Spotlights New Data on Global Inequality, Calls to Prioritize Those Being Left Behind
New Sub-national Data Shows Surprising and Significant Progress, but Huge Gaps Remain, Driven by Gender and Geography

 

Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.

 

CARB-X [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
09.17.2019  |
CARB-X funds Procarta Biosystems to develop oligonucleotide-based antibiotics to combat life-threatening Gram-negative pathogens
CARB-X is awarding Procarta Biosystems, a UK-based biotech company, up to US$2.2 million in non-dilutive funding with the possibility of $7.0 million more if certain project milestones are met, to develop a new class of antibiotics to treat Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens. The new antibiotics are based on Procarta’s oligonucleotide antimicrobial platform. While still in preclinical development, if eventually approved for use in patients, Procarta’s PRO-202 antibiotics could be used to treat serious infections associated with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI).

 

CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://cepi.net/
News
A World at Risk: Global Preparedness Monitoring Board launches first annual report
18 Sep 2019
By CEPI
[See Milestones above for detail]

 

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://clintonhealthaccess.org/about/
News & Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

EDCTP [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
Latest news
No new digest content identified.

 

Emory Vaccine Center [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
Website not responding at inquiry

 

European Medicines Agency [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News and press releases
News: Meeting highlights from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) 16-19 September 2019
CHMP, Last updated: 20/09/2019
EMA’s human medicines committee (CHMP) recommended seven medicines for approval at its September 2019 meeting.

 

European Vaccine Initiative [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
Latest news
No new digest content identified.

 

FDA [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
No new digest content identified.

 

Fondation Merieux [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
Mérieux Foundation event
7th Vaccine Acceptance Meeting
September 23 – 25, 2019 – Les Pensières Center for Global Health, Veyrier du Lac (France)
Context
Early in 2019, the World Health Organization labelled reluctance to receive recommended vaccines – despite the availability of vaccination services – as one of the 10 most important threats to global health. At the same time, global headlines reported a 300% increase in measles cases worldwide, with many outbreaks directly linked to vaccine acceptance.

 

Gavi [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.gavi.org/
Latest news
Gavi at the UNGA: People, planet and prosperity
19 September 2019
At the 74th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), high-level government, UN and civil society representatives will gather in New York to assess progress on the Sustainable Development Goals, just as converging threats to the planet and people are calling for urgent attention.
[See Milestones above for Gavi high-level messages for UN General Assembly]

 

GHIT Fund [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that devastate the world’s poorest people. Other funders include six Japanese pharmaceutical
No new digest content identified.

 

Global Fund [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
News & Stories
Feature Story
Rwanda: A Nation Reborn
20 September 2019

Updates
Equal Salary Certification for the Global Fund
20 September 2019

Voices
Next Stop: Universal Health Coverage for all Africans
19 September 2019

News
Global Fund Partnership has Saved 32 Million Lives
19 September 2019
[See Milestones above for more detail]

Updates
Note on Global Fund Programmatic Results
19 September 2019

Updates
Data Explorer Enhancements: Results
19 September 2019

Sourcing & Management of Health Products
Opportunity for Evaluation of Diagnostic Products
17 September 2019

 

Hilleman Laboratories [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
No new digest content identified.

 

Human Vaccines Project [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

IAVI [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
No new digest content identified.

 

 

International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA)
http://www.icmra.info/drupal/en/news
Statements and Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

 

IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/library/news/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

 

IFRC [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/news/press-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
No new digest content identified.

 

IVAC [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
Updates
3 Things We Know About Vaccines in a Climate Change Future
By Molly Sauer Sep
WHAT WE KNOW 
1.  It’s likely more people will be affected by mosquito-borne diseases like dengue, yellow fever, and malaria
2.  Diarrheal diseases are likely to increase and some regions may see changes in seasonality
3.  Robust immunization programs are critical to support climate refugees and mitigate health security concerns…

 

IVI [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.ivi.int/
Selected IVI News & Announcements
IVI co-organizes the 2019 International Vaccine Industry Forum with GIB
September 20, 2019, SEOUL, Korea — The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) joined forces with the Gyeongbuk Institute for Bioindustry (GIB) to organize the ‘2019 International Vaccine Industry Forum (IVIF 2019)’ in Andong, South Korea on September 19. The event was jointly hosted by Gyeongsangbuk-do Province and Andong City to help accelerate the development of the global vaccine industry and a vaccine industry cluster in the city.

The International Vaccine Industry Forum, which has convened every year since 2016, aims to share the latest vaccine industry trends and innovative technology advances, and explore development strategies for the vaccine industry. The event also offers a venue for discussion to promote Andong, home to IVI’s branch laboratory, vaccine companies and research facilities, as an emerging global vaccine hub.

Under the overall theme of “Development and Prospect of the Vaccine Industry through Public-Private Cooperation,” this year’s event entailed in-depth discussions about public and private partnership starting with a keynote speech, followed by two main sessions and a panel discussion…

 

JEE Alliance [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
Selected News and Events
No new digest content identified.

 

MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.msf.org/
Latest
Pakistan
Working to turn the tide of hepatitis C in Karachi’s Machar Colony
Project Update 20 Sep 2019

Rohingya refugee crisis
Healthcare for struggling refugee communities in Malaysia
Project Update 20 Sep 2019

Syria
Beyond trauma injuries: One of Syria’s neglected health needs
Voices from the Field 17 Sep 2019

 

NIH [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
Selected News Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

PATH [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
Selected Announcements
No new digest content identified.

 

ProMED [Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases] [to 21 Sep 2019]
International Society for Infectious Diseases
https://www.promedmail.org/announcements/
Selected Announcements/Posts
No new digest content identified.

 

Sabin Vaccine Institute [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
No new digest content identified.

 

UNAIDS [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
20 September 2019
Reduce, reuse, recycle: young Ghanaians say yes to less

20 September 2019
How climate change is affecting people living with HIV

18 September 2019
Unwavering care for people who inject drugs on the streets of Glasgow

16 September 2019
Interview with UNAIDS PrEP expert Rosalind Coleman

 

UNICEF [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Statements, Press Releases, Reports
Press release
29 million babies born into conflict in 2018
UNICEF calls for increased support for parents forced to raise their babies and young children in conflict-affected areas
19/09/2019

Press release
More women and children survive today than ever before – UN report
Despite progress, a pregnant woman or newborn dies somewhere in the world every 11 seconds
19/09/2019

 

Vaccination Acceptance Research Network (VARN) [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://vaccineacceptance.org/news.html#header1-2r
No new digest content identified.

 

Vaccine Confidence Project [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
Confidence Commentary:
First Global Vaccination Summit sounds the alarm on access and hesitancy
Posted on 15 Sep, 2019 Heidi Larson
One of the most important insights of the European Commission-hosted Vaccination Summit came from  Ethan Lindenberger, an 18-year old high school student who decided to get himself vaccinated  after his  mother chose not to vaccinate him. He spoke passionately  about the need to build bridges and recognize that,  “People who believe vaccine misinformation are not bad people… let’s not demonise them and build a wall, but rather extend a hand and build the bridges.”   – HL. 
Read full article here

 

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

 

Wellcome Trust [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
Opinion | 18 September 2019
How do you get children from disadvantaged backgrounds engaged with science?
by Mat Hickman

Opinion | 16 September 2019
4 ways that PhD programmes are improving their training culture
by Anne-Marie Coriat
The new PhD programmes in science that we’re funding combine scientific excellence with a commitment to improving the working environment for trainees.

 

The Wistar Institute [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
Press Release Sep. 18, 2019
Identification of a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Cell Death Reveals a Promising Target for Cancer Therapy
PHILADELPHIA — (Sept. 18, 2019) — Researchers at The Wistar Institute have described the role of mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) in controlling survival of cancer cells, suggesting the protein could represent a promising therapeutic target. They also found that expression of MFF is regulated by Myc, a ubiquitous mediator of cell proliferation that contributes to development of many cancer types. These results were published online in the journal EBioMedicine…

 

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2019/
No new digest content identified.

 

 

::::::

 

ARM [Alliance for Regenerative Medicine] [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://alliancerm.org/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

 

BIO [to 21 Sep 2019]
https://www.bio.org/insights/press-release
Sep 20 2019
New Executive Order Critical to Protecting Patients and Public Health
President Trump has signed an executive order focused on spurring the development of new vaccine technologies, prioritizing the production of influenza vaccines and identifying strategies for communicating the importance of influenza vaccination.
[See Milestones above for full text]

 

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
Events
DCVMN 20th Annual General Meeting
21 October 2019 to 23 October 2019
Rio de Janeiro / Brazil

 

IFPMA [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Statements, Publications
No new digest content identified.

 

PhRMA [to 21 Sep 2019]
http://www.phrma.org/
Selected Press Releases, Statements
Press Release
PhRMA Names Lori Reilly Chief Operating Officer
Reilly to Lead Federal, State and International Advocacy and Alliance Development
Washington, D.C. (September 17, 2019) — The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) today named Lori M. Reilly, Esq. as chief operating officer (COO), a new position within PhRMA. Reilly has been at PhRMA for nearly 20 years, most recently serving as executive vice president of policy, research and membership.
In this newly created role, Reilly will provide executive level management, leadership and strategic direction to PhRMA and oversee the association’s federal, state and international government affairs and alliance development…

 

Industry Watch [to 21 Sep 2019]
Selected Announcements
:: FDA Accepts Merck’s Biologics License Application (BLA) and Grants Priority Review for V920, the Company’s Investigational Vaccine for Ebola Zaire Virus
Merck Continues to Expand Investigational Supply to Support International Ebola Outbreak Response
September 17, 2019
KENILWORTH, N.J.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Merck, known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the Biologics License Application (BLA) and granted priority review for Merck’s investigational Ebola vaccine (V920), under review for the prevention of disease caused by the Ebola Zaire virus. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), or target action date, is set for March 14, 2020. In July 2016, the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to V920.
“Merck has worked with government partners and the global health community to accelerate development of our investigational V920 Ebola vaccine. FDA’s priority review designation underscores our long-standing partnership with the U.S. government toward its development and licensure,” said Dr. Paula Annunziato, vice president, Merck Research Laboratories. “A top priority for us remains achieving registration of V920 and regulatory approval of our German manufacturing site, so that licensed supply can be produced over time to support global public health preparedness and health security objectives. We look forward to continuing to work with the FDA throughout the review process.” …

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focu-s on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.
If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Rubella transmission and the risk of congenital rubella syndrome in Liberia: a need to introduce rubella-containing vaccine in the routine immunization program

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 21 Sep 2019)

 

Research article
Rubella transmission and the risk of congenital rubella syndrome in Liberia: a need to introduce rubella-containing vaccine in the routine immunization program
Rubella is an RNA virus in the genus Rubivirus within the Matonaviridae family. Rubella remains a leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Most African countries including Liberia do not currently prov…
Authors: Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mohammed Seid Ali, Tiala K. Korkpor, Roland Tuopileyi II, Henry T. Kohar, John Dogba, April Baller, Julius Monday, Suleman Abdullahi, Thomas Nagbe, Gertrude Mulbah, Mohammed Kromah, Jeremy Sesay, Kwuakuan Yealue, Tolbert Nyenswah and Mesfin Zbelo Gebrekidan
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:813
Published on: 18 September 2019

Use of a mobile application for Ebola contact tracing and monitoring in northern Sierra Leone: a proof-of-concept study

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 21 Sep 2019)

 

Research article
Use of a mobile application for Ebola contact tracing and monitoring in northern Sierra Leone: a proof-of-concept study
The 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest Ebola epidemic to date. Contact tracing was a core surveillance activity. Challenges with paper-based contact tracing systems include incomplete iden…
Authors: Lisa O. Danquah, Nadia Hasham, Matthew MacFarlane, Fatu E. Conteh, Fatoma Momoh, Andrew A. Tedesco, Amara Jambai, David A. Ross and Helen A. Weiss
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:810
Published on: 18 September 2019

The case for a universal hepatitis C vaccine to achieve hepatitis C elimination

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 21 Sep 2019)

 

Research article
The case for a universal hepatitis C vaccine to achieve hepatitis C elimination
The introduction of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C has led to calls to eliminate it as a public health threat through treatment-as-prevention. Recent studies suggest it …
Authors: Nick Scott, David P. Wilson, Alexander J. Thompson, Eleanor Barnes, Manal El-Sayed, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Heidi E. Drummer and Margaret E. Hellard
Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:175
Published on: 18 September 2019

Relocation of study participants for rare and ultra-rare disease trials: Ethics and operations

Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume 84 September 2019
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/contemporary-clinical-trials/vol/84/suppl/C

 

Patient Recruitment
Research article Abstract only
Relocation of study participants for rare and ultra-rare disease trials: Ethics and operations
Luke Gelinas, Brian Crawford, Ariella Kelman, Barbara E. Bierer
Abstract
Clinical trials for investigational new products to treat rare and ultra-rare diseases typically involve a limited number of research sites recruiting from a small pool of patients dispersed over a large geographical area. When remote access is not possible and participants must be present at a trial site, participation in research may require individuals and their families/caregivers to travel great distances, often at significant cost personally and financially and, frequently, for the duration of the trial. This article addresses the ethical and practical issues associated with the practice of sponsors offering financial and other assistance for relocation to trial sites from significant geographical distances, providing both foundational analysis of the ethical issues as well as actionable policy-level guidance on how to best approach these situations.

The ethical contours of research in crisis settings: five practical considerations for academic institutional review boards and researchers

Disasters
Volume 43, Issue 4 Pages: 709-954 October 2019
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/14677717/current

 

Papers
The ethical contours of research in crisis settings: five practical considerations for academic institutional review boards and researchers
Kathryn Falb, Betsy Laird, Ruwan Ratnayake, Katherine Rodrigues, Jeannie Annan
Pages: 711-726
First Published: 22 August 2019
Abstract
The number of research studies in the humanitarian field is rising. It is imperative, therefore, that institutional review boards (IRBs) consider carefully the additional risks present in crisis contexts to ensure that the highest ethical standards are upheld. Ethical guidelines should represent better the specific issues inherent to research among populations grappling with armed conflict, disasters triggered by natural hazards, or health‐related emergencies. This paper seeks to describe five issues particular to humanitarian settings that IRBs should deliberate and on which they should provide recommendations to overcome associated challenges: staged reviews of protocols in acute emergencies; flexible reviews of modification requests; addressing violence and the traumatic experiences of participants; difficulties in attaining meaningful informed consent among populations dependent on aid; and ensuring reviews are knowledgeable of populations’ needs. Considering these matters when reviewing protocols will yield more ethically sound research in humanitarian settings and hold researchers accountable to appropriate ethical standards.

A multidisciplinary review of the policy, intellectual property rights, and international trade environment for access and affordability to essential cancer medications

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/
[Accessed 21 Sep 2019]

 

Review
|   18 September 2019
A multidisciplinary review of the policy, intellectual property rights, and international trade environment for access and affordability to essential cancer medications
Authors: Sangita M. Baxi, Reed Beall, Joshua Yang and Tim K. Mackey
Abstract
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children’s EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.

Science, innovation and society: what we need to prepare for the health challenges of the twenty-first century?

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Commentaries
Science, innovation and society: what we need to prepare for the health challenges of the twenty-first century?
Jeremy Farrar
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 317–320, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz047
A little over 30 y ago, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first identified as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Within a decade the nature of the infection, the pathogenesis and a series of combination therapies had been developed that transformed a deadly infection into a challenging but manageable condition. The challenge was then to ensure that everyone who needed these lifesaving therapies had access to them. With more than 20 million people…

The urgent case for expanded development assistance for health

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

The urgent case for expanded development assistance for health
Jeffrey D Sachs
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 321–323, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz059
Abstract
The low-income developing countries require increased development assistance for health (DAH) to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3, ‘Healthy Lives for All’. DAH has a proven track record. DAH expanded during 2001–2008, with significant health gains in the LIDCs, but then stopped expanding in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria requires around US$31.8 billion during 2021–2023 to maintain a trajectory to end the three epidemics by 2030, yet donors have so far signaled that they are prepared to offer less than half that sum, around US$14 billion.

Immunizations and vaccines: a decade of successes and reversals, and a call for ‘vaccine diplomacy’

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Immunizations and vaccines: a decade of successes and reversals, and a call for ‘vaccine diplomacy’
Peter J Hotez
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 331–333, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz024
Abstract
Over the last decade we have seen extraordinary public health gains due to expansions in global vaccination programs led by United Nations (UN) agencies, including Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF and the WHO. These initiatives have reduced childhood deaths from measles, tetanus and other vaccine-preventable diseases by almost one half. There is additional excitement over the potential development and introduction of new vaccines to prevent highly lethal respiratory virus infections, as well as tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS and several neglected tropical diseases. However, these successes are under threat due to political instability, conflict and an accelerating antivaccine movement. New initiatives in vaccine diplomacy will be required to combat these challenges.

International funding for mental health: a review of the last decade

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Review
International funding for mental health: a review of the last decade
Bernhard H Liese, Rebecca S F Gribble, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 361–369, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz040

International funding for mental health: a review of the last decade

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Review
International funding for mental health: a review of the last decade
Bernhard H Liese, Rebecca S F Gribble, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 361–369, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz040

Gender equity in mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases: data from 16 countries

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Original Articles
Gender equity in mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases: data from 16 countries
Daniel A Cohn, Maureen P Kelly, Kalpana Bhandari, Kathryn L Zoerhoff, Wilfrid E Batcho
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 370–378, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz012

Medical donations are not always free: an assessment of compliance of medicine and medical device donations with World Health Organization guidelines (2009–2017)

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

Medical donations are not always free: an assessment of compliance of medicine and medical device donations with World Health Organization guidelines (2009–2017)
Sally McDonald, Alice Fabbri, Lisa Parker, Jane Williams, Lisa Bero
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 379–402, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz004

How many life-years have new drugs saved? A three-way fixed-effects analysis of 66 diseases in 27 countries, 2000–2013

International Health
Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019
http://inthealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

 

How many life-years have new drugs saved? A three-way fixed-effects analysis of 66 diseases in 27 countries, 2000–2013
Frank R Lichtenberg
International Health, Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages 403–416, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz003
Background
We analyzed the role that the launch of new drugs has played in reducing the number of years of life lost (YLL) before three different ages (85, 70 and 55 y) due to 66 diseases in 27 countries.
Conclusions
The estimates imply that, if no new drugs had been launched after 1981, YLL85 in 2013 would have been 2.16 times as high as it actually was. We estimated that pharmaceutical expenditure per life-year saved before age 85 y in 2013 by post-1981 drugs was $2837. This amount is about 8% of per capita GDP, indicating that post-1981 drugs launched were very cost-effective overall. But the fact that an intervention is cost-effective does not necessarily mean that it is ‘affordable.’

Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety Evaluation of an MF59 Adjuvanted Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine Compared to Non-adjuvanted Influenza: A Comprehensive Review in Older Adults and Children: Publication of this supplement was supported by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., and Seqirus, Inc.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 85, Supplement, S1-S38
https://www.ijidonline.com/issue/S1201-9712(19)X0015-6

 

Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety Evaluation of an MF59 Adjuvanted Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine Compared to Non-adjuvanted Influenza: A Comprehensive Review in Older Adults and Children: Publication of this supplement was supported by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., and Seqirus, Inc.
Open Access

Adult Immunization Update

JAMA
September 17, 2019, Vol 322, No. 11, Pages 1023-1116
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

 

Clinical Update
Adult Immunization Update
Beverly E. Sha, MD
free access has multimedia
JAMA. 2019;322(11):1096-1097. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.12739
This JAMA Insights Clinical Update reviews updates in 2019 to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) adult immunization schedule, including recommendations for the Shingrix vaccine for prevention of zoster and of the Heplisav-B vaccine for prevention of hepatitis B virus infection.

Public procurement of medicines: scoping review of the scientific literature in South America

Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://joppp.biomedcentral.com/
[Accessed 21 Sep 2019]

 

Review
|   18 September 2019
Public procurement of medicines: scoping review of the scientific literature in South America
Authors: Cristiane Mota Soares, Beatriz Nascimento, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Rondineli Mendes Silva, Maria Auxiliadora Oliveira and Vera Lucia Luiza

Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary

The Lancet
Sep 21, 2019 Volume 394 Number 10203 p979-1112
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

The Lancet Commissions
Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary
Richard G A Feachem, Ingrid Chen, Omar Akbari, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Samir Bhatt, Fred Binka, et al
50 years after a noble but flawed attempt to eradicate malaria in the mid-20th century, the global malaria community is once again seriously considering eradication. Momentum towards eradication has been building for decades, and more than half of the world’s countries are now malaria free. Since 2000, a surge of global progress has occurred, facilitated by the roll-out of new technologies and the substantial growth in political and financial commitment by countries, regions, and their global partners. Annual domestic and international spending on malaria increased from roughly US$1·5 billion in 2000 to $4·3 billion in 2016. Simultaneously, the number of countries with endemic malaria dropped from 106 to 86, the worldwide annual incidence rate of malaria declined by 36%, and the annual death rate declined by 60%…
…In this report, the Commission concludes that malaria eradication is possible, worthwhile, and affordable, and that the alternatives to eradication are untenable. We identify opportunities for specific actions that will overcome challenges and accelerate progress, starting with an immediate, firm, global commitment to achieving eradication by 2050.

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries

Science
20 September 2019 Vol 365, Issue 6459
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

 

Research Articles
Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries
By Thomas P. Van Boeckel, João Pires, Reshma Silvester, Cheng Zhao, Julia Song, Nicola G. Criscuolo, Marius Gilbert, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Science20 Sep 2019 Full Access
Growing demand for meat in developing economies increases antibiotic consumption and fuels the risk of antibiotic resistance.
Livestock antibiotic resistance
Most antibiotic use is for livestock, and it is growing with the increase in global demand for meat. It is unclear what the increase in demand for antibiotics means for the occurrence of drug resistance in animals and risk to humans. Van Boeckel et al. describe the global burden of antimicrobial resistance in animals on the basis of systematic reviews over the past 20 years (see the Perspective by Moore). There is a clear increase in the number of resistant bacterial strains occurring in chickens and pigs. The current study provides a much-needed baseline model for low- and middle-income countries and provides a “one health” perspective to which future data can be added.
Structured Abstract
INTRODUCTION
The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Since 2000, meat production has plateaued in high-income countries but has grown by 68%, 64%, and 40% in Asia, Africa, and South America, respectively. The transition to high-protein diets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been facilitated by the global expansion of intensive animal production systems in which antimicrobials are used routinely to maintain health and productivity. Globally, 73% of all antimicrobials sold on Earth are used in animals raised for food. A growing body of evidence has linked this practice with the rise of antimicrobial-resistant infections, not just in animals but also in humans. Beyond potentially serious consequences for public health, the reliance on antimicrobials to meet demand for animal protein is a likely threat to the sustainability of the livestock industry, and thus to the livelihood of farmers around the world.
RATIONALE
In LMICs, trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are poorly documented. In the absence of systematic surveillance systems, point prevalence surveys represent a largely untapped source of information to map trends in AMR in animals. We use geospatial models to produce global maps of AMR in LMICs and give policy-makers—or a future international panel—a baseline for monitoring AMR levels in animals and target interventions in the regions most affected by the rise of resistance.
RESULTS
We identified 901 point prevalence surveys from LMICs reporting AMR rates in animals for common indicator pathogens: Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobial compounds with resistance higher than 50% (P50) increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs and plateaued between 0.12 and 0.23 in cattle. Global maps of AMR (available at resistancebank.org) show hotspots of resistance in northeastern India, northeastern China, northern Pakistan, Iran, eastern Turkey, the south coast of Brazil, Egypt, the Red River delta in Vietnam, and the areas surrounding Mexico City and Johannesburg. Areas where resistance is just starting to emerge are Kenya, Morocco, Uruguay, southern Brazil, central India, and southern China. Uncertainty in our predictions was greatest in the Andes, the Amazon region, West and Central Africa, the Tibetan plateau, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Dense geographical coverage of point prevalence surveys did not systematically correlate with the presence of hotspots of AMR, such as in Ethiopia, Thailand, Chhattisgarh (India), and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The highest resistance rates were observed with the most commonly used classes of antimicrobials in animal production: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and penicillins.
CONCLUSION
The portfolio of antimicrobials used to raise animals for food is rapidly getting depleted, with important consequences for animal health, farmers’ livelihoods, and potentially for human health. Regions affected by the highest levels of AMR should take immediate actions to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials that are essential in human medicine by restricting their use in animal production. In some middle-income countries, particularly in South America, surveillance must be scaled up to match that of low-income African countries that are currently outperforming them despite more limited resources. Policy-makers coordinating the international response to AMR may consider sparing African countries from the most aggressive measures to restrict access to veterinary drugs, which may undermine livestock-based economic development and rightfully be perceived as unfair. However, in regions where resistance is starting to emerge, there is a window of opportunity to limit the rise of resistance by encouraging a transition to sustainable animal farming practices. High-income countries, where antimicrobials have been used on farms since the 1950s, should support this transition—for example, through a global fund to subsidize improvement in farm-level biosafety and biosecurity.

CRISPR-mediated live imaging of genome editing and transcription

Science
20 September 2019 Vol 365, Issue 6459
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

CRISPR-mediated live imaging of genome editing and transcription
By Haifeng Wang, Muneaki Nakamura, Timothy R. Abbott, Dehua Zhao, Kaiwen Luo, Cordelia Yu, Cindy M. Nguyen, Albert Lo, Timothy P. Daley, Marie La Russa, Yanxia Liu, Lei S. Qi

 

Science20 Sep 2019 : 1301-1305 Restricted Access
A CRISPR-mediated imaging approach, LiveFISH, enables real-time tracking of DNA and RNA in living cells.
Tracking nucleic acids in living cells
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular technique for detecting nucleic acids in cells. However, it requires cell fixation and denaturation. Wang et al. found that CRISPR-Cas9 protects guide RNAs from degradation in cells only when bound to target DNA. Taking advantage of this target-dependent stability switch, they developed a labeling technique, named CRISPR LiveFISH, to detect DNA and RNA using fluorophore-conjugated guide RNAs with Cas9 and Cas13, respectively. CRISPR LiveFISH improves the signal-to-noise ratio, is compatible with living cells, and allows tracking real-time dynamics of genome editing, chromosome translocation, and transcription.
Abstract
We report a robust, versatile approach called CRISPR live-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization (LiveFISH) using fluorescent oligonucleotides for genome tracking in a broad range of cell types, including primary cells. An intrinsic stability switch of CRISPR guide RNAs enables LiveFISH to accurately detect chromosomal disorders such as Patau syndrome in prenatal amniotic fluid cells and track multiple loci in human T lymphocytes. In addition, LiveFISH tracks the real-time movement of DNA double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR-Cas9–mediated editing and consequent chromosome translocations. Finally, by combining Cas9 and Cas13 systems, LiveFISH allows for simultaneous visualization of genomic DNA and RNA transcripts in living cells. The LiveFISH approach enables real-time live imaging of DNA and RNA during genome editing, transcription, and rearrangements in single cells.