Anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain antibody evolution after mRNA vaccination

Nature
Volume 600 Issue 7889, 16 December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nature/volumes/600/issues/7889

 

Article | 07 October 2021 | Open Access
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain antibody evolution after mRNA vaccination
Individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, whereas the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination.
Alice Cho, Frauke Muecksch, Michel C. Nussenzweig

Technologies to advance COVID-19 vaccine equity

Nature Biotechnology
Volume 39 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nbt/volumes/39/issues/12

 

Editorial | 06 December 2021
Technologies to advance COVID-19 vaccine equity
Poor countries need vaccine formats with low barriers to manufacture, distribution and administration.
…The massive global effort over the past two years to develop, make, and administer vaccines against a novel, fast-spreading pathogen is unprecedented in the history of vaccines. The results are still unfolding and will have much to teach us about both the immunology of viral infection and the strengths and weaknesses of emerging COVID-19 vaccine technologies. With international cooperation and open data sharing, they may shed light on some of the most intractable problems in vaccinology: how best to make mucosal vaccines, how to induce robust immunity in the immunocompromised or aged people with immunosenescence, how best to increase the longevity of protection, and how to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against diverse viral lineages or a rapidly mutating virus.

The knowledge gained could lead to more-effective COVID-19 vaccines. Current vaccines greatly diminish the risks of infection, transmission, serious illness, and death but do not entirely prevent them, with immunocompromised and elderly people the most vulnerable. Efficacy wanes in a matter of months (in the age cohorts for which data are available — 16 and up). Improvements that can be envisaged include intranasal or oral vaccines for stronger mucosal immunity to reduce infection and transmission, and pan-sarbecovirus vaccines to protect against all SARS coronavirus strains.

No single vaccine will be best for every country and every pandemic condition. But we need to ensure that all people, including those in poor, rural, or remote communities, have access to highly effective and safe COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine technologies that are validated for COVID-19 may also aid the development of vaccines for other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, pandemic influenza, malaria, and respiratory syncytial virus infection, and strengthen our preparedness to fight future pathogens.

Combination therapy patents: a new front in evergreening

Nature Biotechnology
Volume 39 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nbt/volumes/39/issues/12

 

Patents | 08 December 2021
Combination therapy patents: a new front in evergreening
As pharmaceutical companies seek patent protection for combinations of cancer therapeutics, it is worthwhile to assess what constitutes an ‘unexpected result’ for the purpose of an appropriate patent and whether randomized, controlled trials of drug combinations have the ability to generate them.
Garth W. Strohbehn, Alec J. Kacew, Mark J. Ratain

Understanding resistance to medical AI

Nature Human Behaviour
Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nathumbehav/volumes/5/issues/12

 

Understanding resistance to medical AI
Previous research has shown that patients are reluctant to use medical artificial intelligence (AI). Cadario et al. find that this reluctance is due to people perceiving algorithms as a ‘black box’, coupled with an illusory sense of understanding medical decisions made by humans. Brief interventions that target subjective understanding of medical AI increase people’s willingness to use it…

Aspiring to greater intellectual humility in science

Nature Human Behaviour
Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nathumbehav/volumes/5/issues/12

 

Perspective | 28 October 2021
Aspiring to greater intellectual humility in science
Although intellectual humility is a prerequisite for credible science, it is rarely practised. Hoekstra and Vazire make recommendations on how to increase intellectual humility in research articles and highlight the crucial role of peer reviewers in promoting intellectually humble manuscripts.
Rink Hoekstra, Simine Vazire

Prepare developed democracies for long-run economic slowdowns

Nature Human Behaviour
Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nathumbehav/volumes/5/issues/12

 

Perspective | 18 November 2021
Prepare developed democracies for long-run economic slowdowns
The coming years are likely to see slowing economic growth, which has significant consequences for developed democracies. This Perspective by Burgess et al. considers the implications of slowed growth and proposes a guided civic revival approach to addressing challenges.
Matthew G. Burgess, Amanda R. Carrico, Steve Vanderheiden

Understanding, explaining, and utilizing medical artificial intelligence

Nature Human Behaviour
Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nathumbehav/volumes/5/issues/12

 

Article | 28 June 2021
Understanding, explaining, and utilizing medical artificial intelligence
Cadario et al. identify potential reasons underlying the resistance to use medical artificial intelligence and test interventions to overcome this resistance.
Romain Cadario, Chiara Longoni, Carey K. Morewedge

No causal effect of school closures in Japan on the spread of COVID-19 in spring 2020

Nature Medicine
Volume 27 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/27/issues/12

 

Article | 27 October 2021 | Open Access
No causal effect of school closures in Japan on the spread of COVID-19 in spring 2020
School closures in municipalities in Japan at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic showed no significant reduction in cases compared with case counts in municipalities with open schools, questioning the utility of school closures in mitigating community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Kentaro Fukumoto, Charles T. McClean, Kuninori Nakagawa

The impact of school opening model on SARS-CoV-2 community incidence and mortality

Nature Medicine
Volume 27 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/27/issues/12

 

Article | 27 October 2021
The impact of school opening model on SARS-CoV-2 community incidence and mortality
Results from a nationwide cohort study in the United States indicates that schools can reopen for in-person learning without substantially increasing community case rates of SARS-CoV-2.
Zeynep Ertem, Elissa M. Schechter-Perkins, Richard E. Nelson

Effect of Delta variant on viral burden and vaccine effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK

Nature Medicine
Volume 27 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/27/issues/12

 

Article | 14 October 2021 | Open Access
Effect of Delta variant on viral burden and vaccine effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK
A large, community-based study in the United Kingdom indicates that the effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infections with symptoms or high viral burden is reduced with the Delta variant compared to the Alpha variant.
Koen B. Pouwels, Emma Pritchard, A. Sarah Walker

BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Qatar

Nature Medicine
Volume 27 Issue 12, December 2021
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/27/issues/12

 

Article | 02 November 2021
BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Qatar
mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective at preventing severe outcomes and death caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant (B.1.617.2) in Qatar despite substantially lower effectiveness at blocking infection.
Patrick Tang, Mohammad R. Hasan, Laith J. Abu-Raddad

Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death when combining a first dose ChAdOx1 vaccine with a subsequent mRNA vaccine in Denmark: A nationwide population-based cohort study

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 18 Dec 2021)

 

Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death when combining a first dose ChAdOx1 vaccine with a subsequent mRNA vaccine in Denmark: A nationwide population-based cohort study
Mie Agermose Gram, Jens Nielsen, Astrid Blicher Schelde, Katrine Finderup Nielsen, Ida Rask Moustsen-Helms, Anne Katrine Bjørkholt Sørensen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Hanne-Dorthe Emborg
Research Article | published 17 Dec 2021 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003874

Oncologists’ reflections on patient rights and access to compassionate use drugs: A qualitative interview study from an academic cancer center

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

 

Research Article
Oncologists’ reflections on patient rights and access to compassionate use drugs: A qualitative interview study from an academic cancer center
Jeremiah Stout, Cambray Smith, Jan Buckner, Alex A. Adjei, Mark Wentworth, Jon C. Tilburt, Zubin Master
Research Article | published 17 Dec 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0261478

Factors of parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: A cross sectional study in Japan

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

 

Factors of parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: A cross sectional study in Japan
Sayaka Horiuchi, Haruka Sakamoto, Sarah K. Abe, Ryoji Shinohara, Megumi Kushima, Sanae Otawa, Hideki Yui, Yuka Akiyama, Tadao Ooka, Reiji Kojima, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Kunio Miyake, Takashi Mizutani, Zentaro Yamagata
Research Article | published 17 Dec 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0261121

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of influenza vaccination and probiotic supplementation on immune response and incidence of influenza-like illness in an elderly population in Indonesia

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

 

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of influenza vaccination and probiotic supplementation on immune response and incidence of influenza-like illness in an elderly population in Indonesia
Sukamto Koesnoe, Nuning Masjkuri, Asri Adisasmita, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Cissy Kartasasmita, Julitasari Sundoro, Mardiati Nadjib, Mondastri Korib, Alisa Nurul Muthia, Virly Nanda Muzellina, Ummu Habibah, Saskia Aziza Nursyirwan, Kristoforus Hendra Djaya, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar, Rini Mulia Sari
Research Article | published 16 Dec 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250234

Knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus infection and human papillomavirus vaccine among Kazakhstani women attending gynecological clinics

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

 

Knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus infection and human papillomavirus vaccine among Kazakhstani women attending gynecological clinics
Torgyn Issa, Aisha Babi, Alpamys Issanov, Ainur Akilzhanova, Kadisha Nurgaliyeva, Zauresh Abugalieva, Azliyati Azizan, Saleem A. Khan, Chee Kai Chan, Raushan Alibekova, Gulzhanat Aimagambetova
Research Article | published 13 Dec 2021 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0261203

Religious identity cues increase vaccination intentions and trust in medical experts among American Christians

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
December 07, 2021; vol. 118 no. 49
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/49

 

Brief Report
Open Access
Religious identity cues increase vaccination intentions and trust in medical experts among American Christians
James Chu, Sophia L. Pink, and Robb Willer
PNAS December 7, 2021 118 (49) e2106481118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106481118

Persuading US White evangelicals to vaccinate for COVID-19: Testing message effectiveness in fall 2020 and spring 2021

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
December 07, 2021; vol. 118 no. 49
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/49

 

Persuading US White evangelicals to vaccinate for COVID-19: Testing message effectiveness in fall 2020 and spring 2021
Scott E. Bokemper, Alan S. Gerber, Saad B. Omer, and Gregory A. Huber
PNAS December 7, 2021 118 (49) e2114762118; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2114762118

The role of trust in the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine: Results from a national survey

Preventive Medicine
Volume 153 December 2021
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/preventive-medicine/vol/153/suppl/C

 

Research article Full text access
The role of trust in the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine: Results from a national survey
Peter G. Szilagyi, Kyla Thomas, Megha D. Shah, Nathalie Vizueta, … Arie Kapteyn
Article 106727

Time and geographic variations in human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in Washington state

Preventive Medicine
Volume 153 December 2021
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/preventive-medicine/vol/153/suppl/C

 

Research article Full text access
Time and geographic variations in human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in Washington state
Nastaran Pourebrahim, Parth Shah, Trang VoPham, David R. Doody, … Margaret M. Madeleine
Article 106753

Looking ahead in the COVID-19 pandemic: emerging lessons learned for sexual and reproductive health services in low- and middle-income countries

Reproductive Health
http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

 

Looking ahead in the COVID-19 pandemic: emerging lessons learned for sexual and reproductive health services in low- and middle-income countries
Authors: Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas and Sanni Yaya
Content type: Editorial
14 December 2021

COVID-19 impact on infant and adolescent vaccine supplies

Science
Volume 374| Issue 6574| 17 Dec 2021
https://www.science.org/toc/science/current

 

Policy Forum
COVID-19 impact on infant and adolescent vaccine supplies
BY Tania Cernuschi…Alejandro Cravioto
16 Dec 2021: 1438-1441
Vaccine production is quadrupling rapidly, creating supply chain challenges
Immunization prevents 4 to 5 million deaths annually, primarily among children, but each year 20 million infants do not receive a full course of the most essential basic vaccines. COVID-19 has underscored the importance of vaccines to public health, but immunization coverage dropped in 2020 as a result of the pandemic, leaving even more infants un- or underimmunized (1). The push to manufacture COVID-19 vaccines has raised concerns that supplies of other essential vaccines may be compromised, which could erode the gains achieved by immunization and delay access for underserved populations. Drawing on data assembled by the World Health Organization (WHO) and on the advice of technical experts (see supplementary materials), we describe how COVID-19 is affecting the global supply of key infant and adolescent vaccines (see the table). We assess the risks to those essential vaccines, identify mitigations, and explore how emerging innovations can help improve market health…

Vaccines 2020: The era of the digital vaccine is here

Science Translational Medicine
Volume 13| Issue 624| 15 Dec 2021
https://www.science.org/toc/stm/current

 

Viewpoint
Vaccines 2020: The era of the digital vaccine is here
BY Mariagrazia Pizza, Simone Pecetta, Rino Rappuoli
15 Dec 2021
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has generated a renaissance in vaccinology, with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines delivering a “digital code” of the viral antigen with no need to purify proteins or inactivate pathogens.

100 years of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine

Vaccine
Volume 39, Issue 50, Pages 7221-7356 (8 December 2021)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/39/issue/50

 

100 Years of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccine
Editorial Full text access
100 years of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine
Paulo J.G. Bettencourt, Simone A. Joosten, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Marcel A. Behr, … Olivier Neyrolles
Pages 7221-7222

Pre-Print Servers

Pre-Print Servers

 

Gates Open Research
https://gatesopenresearch.org/browse/articles
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

[No new digest content identified]

 

medRxiv
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/about-medrxiv
medRxiv is a free online archive and distribution server for complete but unpublished manuscripts (preprints) in the medical, clinical, and related health sciences. Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review. They should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information. medRxiv is for the distribution of preprints – complete but unpublished manuscripts – that describe human health research conducted, analyzed, and interpreted according to scientific principles…
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]
Selected Content
Resource Profile: The Regenstrief Institute COVID-19 Research Data Commons (CoRDaCo)
Katie S. Allen, Nader Zidan, Vishal Dey, Eneida Mendonca, Shaun Grannis, Suranga Kasturi, Babar Khan, Sarah R. Zappone, David Haggstrom, Laura Ruppert, Titus Schleyer, Xia Ning, Peter Embi, Umberto Tachinardi
medRxiv 2021.12.17.21267942; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.17.21267942

Perceptions and Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccination Amongst Pregnant and Postpartum Individuals
Molly R. Siegel, Mario I. Lumbreras-Marquez, Kaitlyn James, Brandon R. McBay, Kathryn J. Gray, Juliana Schantz-Dunn, Khady Diouf, Ilona T Goldfarb
medRxiv 2021.12.17.21267997; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.17.21267997

A machine learning-based approach to determine infection status in recipients of BBV152 whole virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for serological surveys
Prateek Singh, Rajat Ujjainiya, Satyartha Prakash, Salwa Naushin, Viren Sardana, Nitin Bhatheja, Ajay Pratap Singh, Joydeb Barman, Kartik Kumar, Raju Khan, Karthik Bharadwaj Tallapaka, Mahesh Anumalla, Amit Lahiri, Susanta Kar, Vivek Bhosale, Mrigank Srivastava, Madhav Nilakanth Mugale, C.P Pandey, Shaziya Khan, Shivani Katiyar, Desh Raj, Sharmeen Ishteyaque, Sonu Khanka, Ankita Rani, Promila, Jyotsna Sharma, Anuradha Seth, Mukul Dutta, Nishant Saurabh, Murugan Veerapandian, Ganesh Venkatachalam, Deepak Bansal, Dinesh Gupta, Prakash M Halami, Muthukumar Serva Peddha, Gopinath M Sundaram, Ravindra P Veeranna, Anirban Pal, Ranvijay Kumar Singh, Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan, Parimala Karuppanan, Syed Nasar Rahman, Gopika Selvakumar, Subramanian Venkatesan, MalayKumar Karmakar, Harish Kumar Sardana, Animika Kothari, DevendraSingh Parihar, Anupma Thakur, Anas Saifi, Naman Gupta, Yogita Singh, Ritu Reddu, Rizul Gautam, Anuj Mishra, Avinash Mishra, Iranna Gogeri, Geethavani Rayasam, Yogendra Padwad, Vikram Patial, Vipin Hallan, Damanpreet Singh, Narendra Tirpude, Partha Chakrabarti, Sujay Krishna Maity, Dipyaman Ganguly, Ramakrishna Sistla, Narender Kumar Balthu, Kiran Kumar A, Siva Ranjith, Vijay B Kumar, Piyush Singh Jamwal, Anshu Wali, Sajad Ahmed, Rekha Chouhan, Sumit G Gandhi, Nancy Sharma, Garima Rai, Faisal Irshad, Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, MasroorAhmad Paddar, Sameer Ullah Khan, Fayaz Malik, Debashish Ghosh, Ghanshyam Thakkar, Saroj K Barik, Prabhanshu Tripathi, Yatendra Kumar Satija, Sneha Mohanty, Md. Tauseef Khan, Umakanta Subudhi, Pradip Sen, Rashmi Kumar, Anshu Bhardwaj, Pawan Gupta, Deepak Sharma, Amit Tuli, Saumya Ray Chaudhuri, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, Prakash L, Ch V Rao, B N Singh, Arvindkumar Chaurasiya, Meera Chaurasiyar, Mayuri Bhadange, Bhagyashree Likhitkar, Sharada Mohite, Yogita Patil, Mahesh Kulkarni, Rakesh Joshi, Vaibhav Pandya, Amita Patil, Rachel Samson, Tejas Vare, Mahesh Dharne, Ashok Giri, Shilpa Paranjape, G. Narahari Sastry, Jatin Kalita, Tridip Phukan, Prasenjit Manna, Wahengbam Romi, Pankaj Bharali, Dibyajyoti Ozah, Ravi Kumar Sahu, Prachurjya Dutta, Moirangthem Goutam Singh, Gayatri Gogoi, Yasmin Begam Tapadar, Elapavalooru VSSK Babu, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Aishwarya R Nair, Anoop Puthiyamadam, PrajeeshKooloth Valappil, Adrash Velayudhan Pillai Prasannakumari, Kalpana Chodankar, Samir Damare, Ved Varun Agrawal, Kumardeep Chaudhary, Anurag Agrawal, Shantanu Sengupta, Debasis Dash
medRxiv 2021.12.16.21267889; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.16.21267889

Predictors of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive the COVID-19 booster vaccine in a sample of 22,139 fully vaccinated adults in the UK
Elise Paul, Daisy Fancourt
medRxiv 2021.12.17.21267941; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.17.21267941

Vaccines provide disproportional protection to the increased hospitalisation risk posed by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV2: a meta-analysis
Mirre J P Simons
medRxiv 2021.12.15.21267799; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.15.21267799

Cash Transfer Programs and HIV-Related Outcomes: an Analysis of 42 Countries from 1996 to 2019
Aaron Richterman, Harsha Thirumurthy
medRxiv 2021.12.16.21267921; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.16.21267921

SAFETY PROFILE OF COVID-19 VACCINES IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN IN BRAZIL
Yaping Qiao, Ariane Abreu, Carolina Zampirolli Dias, Xing Meng, Rafaela Vansan Ferreira, Ramon Goncalves Pereira, Guilherme Silva Julian, Weidong Yin
medRxiv 2021.12.14.21267777; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267777

A meta-analysis of Early Results to predict Vaccine efficacy against Omicron
David S Khoury, Megan Steain, James Triccas, Alex Sigal, Miles Philip Davenport, Deborah Cromer
medRxiv 2021.12.13.21267748; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.13.21267748

Waning of mRNA-1273 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Qatar
Laith J Abu-Raddad, Hiam Chemaitelly, Houssein H. Ayoub, HADI M. YASSINE, Fatiha Benslimane, Heba A. Al Khatib, Patrick Tang, Mohammad Rubayet Hasan, Peter Coyle, Zaina Al Kanaani, Einas Al Kuwari, Andrew Jeremijenko, Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal, Ali Nizar Latif, Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik, Hanan F. Abdul Rahim, Gheyath Nasrallah, Mohamed Ghaith Al Kuwari, Adeel A Butt, Hamad Eid Al Romaihi, Mohamed H. Al-Thani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Roberto Bertollini
medRxiv 2021.12.16.21267902; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.16.21267902

The COVID-19 pandemic amplified long-standing racial disparities in the United States criminal justice system
Brennan Klein, C. Brandon Ogbunugafor, Benjamin J. Schafer, Zarana Bhadricha, Preeti Kori, Jim Sheldon, Nitish Kaza, Emily A. Wang, Tina Eliassi-Rad, Samuel V. Scarpino, Elizabeth Hinton
medRxiv 2021.12.14.21267199; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267199

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in diverse groups in the UK – is the driver economic or cultural in student populations?
Francis Drobniewski, Dian Kusuma, Agnieszka Broda, Enrique Castro-Sanchez, Raheelah Ahmad
medRxiv 2021.12.14.21267773; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267773

Waning of Vaccine Effectiveness for the COVID-19 vaccine in Japan
Junko Kurita, Tamie Sugawara, Yasushi Ohkusa
medRxiv 2021.06.20.21259209; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.20.21259209

Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern
Nick Andrews, Julia Stowe, Freja Kirsebom, Samuel Toffa, Tim Rickeard, Eileen Gallagher, Charlotte Gower, Meaghan Kall, Natalie Groves, Anne-Marie O’Connell, David Simons, Paula B. Blomquist, Asad Zaidi, Sophie Nash, Nurin Iwani Binti Abdul Aziz, Simon Thelwall, Gavin Dabrera, Richard Myers, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Saheer Gharbia, Jeffrey C. Barrett, Richard Elson, Shamez N Ladhani, Neil Ferguson, Maria Zambon, Colin NJ Campbell, Kevin Brown, Susan Hopkins, Meera Chand, Mary Ramsay, Jamie Lopez Bernal
medRxiv 2021.12.14.21267615; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267615

Assessing impact of Omicron on SARS-CoV-2 dynamics and public health burden
Epke A Le Rutte, Andrew J Shattock, Nakul Chitnis, Sherrie L Kelly, Melissa A Penny
medRxiv 2021.12.12.21267673; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.12.21267673

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant escapes neutralization by vaccinated and convalescent sera and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies
Nariko Ikemura, Atsushi Hoshino, Yusuke Higuchi, Shunta Taminishi, Tohru Inaba, Satoaki Matoba
medRxiv 2021.12.13.21267761; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.13.21267761

mRNA booster immunization elicits potent neutralizing serum activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant
Henning Gruell, Kanika Vanshylla, Pinkus Tober-Lau, David Hillus, Philipp Schommers, Clara Lehmann, Florian Kurth, Leif E. Sander, Florian Klein
medRxiv 2021.12.14.21267769; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267769

Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States during the booster rollout
Jeremy Samuel Faust, Benjamin Renton, Utibe R. Essien, Céline R. Gounder, Zhenqiu Lin, Harlan M. Krumholz
medRxiv 2021.12.12.21267663; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.12.21267663

Wellcome Open Research [to 18 Dec 2021]
https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/browse/articles
[Accessed 18 Dec 2021]

Wellcome Open Research provides all Wellcome researchers with a place to rapidly publish any results they think are worth sharing. All articles benefit from rapid publication, transparent peer review and editorial guidance on making all source data openly available.

Research Article metrics AWAITING PEER REVIEW
Household overcrowding and risk of SARS-CoV-2: analysis of the Virus Watch prospective community cohort study in England and Wales [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
Robert W Aldridge, Helen Pineo, Ellen Fragaszy, Max T Eyre, Jana Kovar, Vincent Nguyen, Sarah Beale, Thomas Byrne, Anna Aryee, Colette Smith, Delan Devakumar, Jonathon Taylor, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Wing Lam Erica Fong, Cyril Geismar, Parth Patel, Madhumita Shrotri, Isobel Braithwaite, Nicholas Patni, Annalan M D Navaratnam, Anne Johnson, Andrew Hayward
Peer Reviewers Invited
Funders
Wellcome Trust
Medical Research Council
PUBLISHED 15 Dec 2021

Research Article metrics AWAITING PEER REVIEW
Assessing equity and the determinants of socio-economic impacts of COVID-19: Results from a cross-sectional survey in three counties in Kenya [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
Robinson Oyando, Stacey Orangi, Daniel Mwanga, Jessie Pinchoff, Timothy Abuya, Eva Muluve, Faith Mbushi, Karen Austrian, Edwine Barasa
Peer Reviewers Invited
Funders
Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust core grant
UK Department for International Development
PUBLISHED 14 Dec 2021

Think Tanks

Think Tanks
 
 
Brookings [to 18 Dec 2021]
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 18 Dec 2021
[No new digest content identified]
 
 
Center for Global Development [to 18 Dec 2021]
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Accessed 18 Dec 2021
[No new digest content identified]
 
 
Chatham House [to 18 Dec 2021]
https://www.chathamhouse.org/
Accessed 18 Dec 2021
[No new digest content identified]

 
 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 18 Dec 2021
[No new digest content identified]

 
 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 18 Dec 2021
December 15, 2021 News Release
“Breakthrough” COVID-19 Hospitalizations Among Fully Vaccinated Patients Occur Most Often among Older Adults and Involve People with Chronic Health Conditions
“Breakthrough” hospitalizations involving COVID-19 among people who are fully vaccinated against the disease most often affected older adults and people with other chronic health conditions, finds a new analysis of hospital data from June through September by KFF and Epic Research. More than two-thirds (69%) of breakthrough COVID-19 hospitalizations occurred…
 
 
ODI [Overseas Development Institute] [to 18 Dec 2021]
https://odi.org/en/publications/
Publications
[No new digest content identified]

Contents [click to move among sections]

Contents [click to move among sections]
:: Editor’s Note: Publication to resume on Saturday, January 8
Historically, we have suspended publication of Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review over the end-of-year, holiday season. We do not plan to publish the next two weekend editions [December 25; January 1], and expect to resume regularly weekly digests on Saturday, January 8.
Of course, if developments in the COVID-19 PHEIC warrant, we will publish special updates over this period.

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 11 December 2021

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review is a weekly digest  summarizing news, events, announcements, peer-reviewed articles and research in the global vaccine ethics and policy space. Content is aggregated from key governmental, NGO, international organization and industry sources, key peer-reviewed journals, and other media channels. This summary proceeds from the broad base of themes and issues monitored by the Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy in its work: it is not intended to be exhaustive in its coverage. You are viewing the blog version of our weekly digest, typically comprised of between 30 and 40 posts below all dated with the current issue date

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

– pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here:

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

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David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

State of inequality: HIV, tuberculosis and malaria

State of inequality: HIV, tuberculosis and malaria
WHO
Published 2021 :: 260 pages
PDF: English
Foreword
…Although great strides have been made to expand health services and prevention efforts across the three diseases, progress to date has not been fast enough. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted essential health services in many countries, jeopardizing the gains we have made.

 

HIV, TB and malaria continue to take a disproportionally large toll on the poorest, least educated and most rural parts of society. Certain communities – including sexual and gender minorities, sex workers, people in prisons, people who inject drugs, migrants, refugees, displaced people and indigenous people – face stigma and discrimination, resulting in lower service access and higher disease risk. COVID-19 has further exposed these fault lines.

The World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria are part of a group of agencies working together to accelerate progress towards the health-related SDGs through the Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All. Understanding patterns of inequalities in these diseases is essential for taking strategic, evidence-informed action to realize our shared vision of ending the epidemics of HIV, TB and malaria.

 

This report presents the first comprehensive analysis of the magnitude and patterns of socioeconomic, demographic and geographic inequalities in disease burden and access to services for prevention and treatment….

Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching and devastating impacts on health and health systems worldwide. Against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, the quality and availability of essential care for all conditions, including HIV, TB and malaria, have been compromised. Testing, treatment and prevention programmes have suffered widespread interruptions, and many people have faced changes in routine services and heightened stigma, discrimination and fear. Tackling inequities in HIV, TB and malaria is key to accelerating progress and closing the persistent gaps in access to care and health outcomes across population subgroups.

Identifying and characterizing inequalities through health inequality monitoring lends important insights to inform differentiation in service provision, so that resources are aligned to achieve maximal impact. An understanding of patterns of inequalities can help to promote equity by increasing the availability of essential health services and interventions among groups at higher risk of infection or mortality.

Recognizing instances where countries have reduced inequities to improve access to key services among groups experiencing higher burden of disease provides an important opportunity to dig deeper into understanding how and why actions were successful. The results of health inequality monitoring, alongside consideration of relevant in-depth quantitative and qualitative studies, can be used to inform equity-oriented policies, programmes and practices, which are central to address the underlying conditions that put groups at higher risk for HIV, TB and malaria.

The impact of monitoring activities, however, lies in their application. Developing technical capacity for health inequality monitoring is important to ensure the process is rigorous and impactful and generates change. Capacity-building activities may encompass identifying and implementing changes to data sources to strengthen the data available for inequality monitoring. To ensure the representation of all groups, data collection efforts should take into account subnational and civil society programmes that work with disadvantaged groups. Other activities include conducting training and skills-building sessions for data analysis and for conducting quantitative and qualitative studies; and strengthening reporting approaches to effectively reach diverse target audiences.

Importantly, there is a need to support activities and practices that translate the findings of inequality analyses to inform the development of policies and programmes and to empower the wider use of data. WHO has developed a number of tools and resources to support health inequality monitoring (see https://www. who.int/data/gho/health-equity).

Media Release
WHO and Global Fund Warn Inequalities Block Progress Towards Ending AIDS, TB and Malaria
09 December 2021
GENEVA – Inequities have been widely acknowledged as barriers to achieving global and national goals and targets in HIV, TB and malaria programs. However, the magnitude and extent of underlying health inequalities have remained poorly documented and understood.
Until those inequalities are better identified, and their consequences better understood, it will be hard for programs to meet people’s real health needs. Now, for the first time, a new report from the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria systematically assesses the global an important step forward in understanding how inequalities are hindering the fight against the three diseases. Using the latest available global data for 32 health indicators in up to 186 countries, it shows that while national averages of HIV, TB and malaria indicators have generally improved in the past decade, the poorest, least educated and rural subgroups tend to remain at a disadvantage across most HIV, TB and malaria indicators…

Joint Statement: Foundations Decry Vaccine Inequity Leading to the Emergence and Circulation of Dangerous Variants

Joint Statement: Foundations Decry Vaccine Inequity Leading to the Emergence and Circulation of Dangerous Variants
12.01.21
NEW YORK — As concern escalates over the threat of the Omicron Covid-19 variant spreading, a group of the world’s leading philanthropies have joined together to call on G7 countries and multinational pharmaceutical companies to urgently lift their restrictions on vaccine supply.

The Global Alliance of Foundations calls on G7 countries under the U.K. and incoming German leadership to make good on earlier commitments and aim even higher to ensure that countries in the Global South have the means to buy, administer, and quickly produce their own vaccines.

We also urge countries to refrain from imposing unreasonable travel bans that penalize countries that shared early warnings about this new variant in the name of global health security.

This new variant comes as the world is failing to meet the World Health Organization’s goal of vaccinating 40 percent of every country’s population by the end of 2021. Less than 7 percent  of Africa’s population is fully vaccinated, and the global death toll has exceeded five million and continues to climb.

The longer the world takes to deliver vaccine equity, the more we allow Covid-19 to mutate and become more dangerous. This new variant demonstrates that vaccine nationalism is a short-sighted approach that is self-defeating and puts us all at risk. It reinforces the reality, once again, that no one is safe until everyone is safe.

While the world awaits more information on whether existing vaccines will be effective against the new variant, we will no doubt see additional pressure on vaccine supplies. Global leaders must do everything in their power to accelerate sharing of intellectual property and technology transfer to allow additional manufacturers to reproduce Covid-19 vaccines in low- and middle-income countries.

Along with the African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT), the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and COVAX, we call for countries with excess doses to stop hoarding and donate those supplies now, and to continue to donate future excesses in real-time. Donations to COVAX, AVAT, and African countries must be made in a way that allows their governments to mobilize their resources in support of equitable distribution and enables both short- and long-term planning.

Covid-19 is not a one-off emergency. This variant will be followed by others, and by new pandemics. This brings home the need for structural global pandemic preparedness and response; effective surveillance and global early warning systems for emerging diseases and new variants; an upscale in local systems’ delivery capacity; medicines manufacturing capacity taken out of the hands of the few and expanded to each continent; global responses based on solidarity, equity, and the understanding of mutual interest; and adequate financing to support all countries in effective response.

We must do better. If we are to address collective global crises, whether Covid, climate, or economic recovery, we need ambitious and urgent reform of the multilateral architecture, including an emphasis on strengthening localized capacity and resilience to deliver a just, green, and inclusive recovery.

James Holt, Executive Director, Archewell Foundation
Kate Hampton, CEO, Children’s Investment Fund Foundation
Peter Laugharn, President, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
Darren Walker, President, Ford Foundation
Boichoko Ditlhake, Head, Civil Society Support, Kagiso Trust
Mo Ibrahim, Founder and Chair, Mo Ibrahim Foundation
Mark Malloch-Brown, President, Open Society Foundations
Dr. Rajiv J. Shah, President, The Rockefeller Foundation

World Medical Association [to 11 Dec 2021]

World Medical Association [to 11 Dec 2021]
https://www.wma.net/news-press/press-releases/
Press Releases
Global Physicians Condemn Continuing Vaccine Inequity
2nd December 2021
Global physician leaders have condemned the continuing inequity of vaccine distribution.
Following the emergence of the new Omicron variant, the World Medical Association has strongly criticised wealthier nations for not doing enough to help lower income countries to vaccinate their populations.
WMA President Dr. Heidi Stensmyren said: ‘This blatant inequity amounts to a failure of global leadership and is deeply disappointing. Until we all learn that this pandemic cannot be contained by one country alone, we will all continue to suffer.
‘The WMA fully supports the World Health Organisation in its latest plan to develop an instrument for pandemic prevention, preparedness and response with a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach, prioritizing the need for equity. But for coping with the current pandemic, this comes too late.
‘Developed countries must now do more to embrace international cooperation. We must progress together not separately and this cannot wait for a new treaty to be finished. We cannot afford to leave anyone behind’.

UNICEF and WHO, in partnership with Gavi, ask Ted Chaiban to serve as Global Lead Coordinator for COVID Vaccine Country Readiness and Delivery

UNICEF and WHO, in partnership with Gavi, ask Ted Chaiban to serve as Global Lead Coordinator for COVID Vaccine Country Readiness and Delivery
Statement
NEW YORK, 6 December 2021 – “I am pleased to announce that UNICEF and WHO, in partnership with Gavi, have asked Ted Chaiban, currently UNICEF Regional Director Middle East and North Africa, to serve as Global Lead Coordinator for COVID Vaccine Country Readiness and Delivery.
“This decision is an expression of our joint commitment to reinvigorate efforts to turn vaccines into vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries.
“With vastly improved supply, the world no longer has a global vaccine supply problem; it has a vaccine equity and delivery problem. More than 80 per cent of the world’s vaccines have gone to G20 countries while millions of people, including healthcare workers, in low-income countries are still unprotected.
“As vaccine doses become increasingly available in the coming weeks, it is critical that countries are prepared, resourced and able to roll them out.
“With support from COVAX, the African Union, AVAT and other partners, governments in low-income countries have made important progress in getting ready to receive and administer COVID-19 vaccines at a scale sufficient to meet global objectives. However, they still face significant challenges in scaling up capacity….