Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic

The Lancet Infectious Disease
Mar 2012  Volume 12  Number 3  p167 – 254

Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: public health, laboratory, and clinical perspectives
Aeron C Hurt, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Nancy J Cox, Rod Daniels, Alicia M Fry, Larisa V Gubareva, Frederick G Hayden, David S Hui, Olav Hungnes, Angie Lackenby, Wilina Lim, Adam Meijer, Charles Penn, Masato Tashiro, Timothy M Uyeki, Maria Zambon, on behalf of the WHO Consultation on Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus Resistance to Antivirals

Influenza A H1N1 2009 virus caused the first pandemic in an era when neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral drugs were available in many countries. The experiences of detecting and responding to resistance during the pandemic provided important lessons for public health, laboratory testing, and clinical management. We propose recommendations for antiviral susceptibility testing, reporting results, and management of patients infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1. Sustained global monitoring for antiviral resistance among circulating influenza viruses is crucial to inform public health and clinical recommendations for antiviral use, especially since community spread of oseltamivir-resistant A H1N1 2009 virus remains a concern. Further studies are needed to better understand influenza management in specific patient groups, such as severely immunocompromised hosts, including optimisation of antiviral treatment, rapid sample testing, and timely reporting of susceptibility results.