Vaccine Poliovirus Shedding and Immune Response to Oral Polio Vaccine in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Zimbabwean Infants

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 208 Issue 4 August 15, 2013

Vaccine Poliovirus Shedding and Immune Response to Oral Polio Vaccine in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Zimbabwean Infants
Stephanie B. Troy1, Georgina Musingwini2, Meira S. Halpern4, ChunHong Huang4, Lynda Stranix-Chibanda2,3, Diana Kouiavskaia5, Avinash K. Shetty2,6, Konstantin Chumakov5,
Kusum Nathoo3 and Yvonne A. Maldonado2,4

Background. With prolonged replication, attenuated polioviruses used in oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) and cause poliomyelitis outbreaks. Individuals with primary humoral immunodeficiencies can become chronically infected with vaccine poliovirus, allowing it to mutate into immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV). It is unclear if children perinatally infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who have humoral as well as cellular immunodeficiencies, might be sources of iVDPV.

Methods. We conducted a prospective study collecting stool and blood samples at multiple time points from Zimbabwean infants receiving OPV according to the national schedule. Nucleic acid extracted from stool was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for OPV serotypes.

Results. We analyzed 825 stool samples: 285 samples from 92 HIV-infected children and 540 from 251 HIV-uninfected children. Poliovirus shedding was similar after 0–2 OPV doses but significantly higher in the HIV-infected versus uninfected children after ≥3 OPV doses, particularly within 42 days of an OPV dose, independent of seroconversion status. HIV infection was not associated with prolonged or persistent poliovirus shedding. HIV infection was associated with significantly lower polio seroconversion rates.

Conclusions. HIV infection is associated with decreased mucosal and humoral immune responses to OPV but not the prolonged viral shedding required to form iVDPV.