Volume 31, Issue 38, Pages 4055-4216 (28 August 2013)
The state-of-the-art of approved and under-development cholera vaccines
M. Pastor, J.L. Pedraz, A. Esquisabel
Cholera remains a huge public health problem. Although in 1894, the first cholera vaccination was reported, an ideal vaccine that meets all the requirements of the WHO has not yet been produced. Among the different approaches used for cholera vaccination, attenuated vaccines represent a major category; these vaccines are beneficial in being able to induce a strong protective response after a single administration. However, they have possible negative effects on immunocompromised patient populations. Both the licensed CVD103-HgR and other vaccine approaches under development are detailed in this article, such as the Vibrio cholerae 638 vaccine candidate, Peru-15 or CholeraGarde® and the VA1.3, VA1.4, IEM 108 VCUSM2 and CVD 112 vaccine candidates. In another strategy, killed V. cholerae vaccines have been developed, including Dukoral®, mORCAX® and Sanchol™. The killed vaccines are already sold, and they have successfully demonstrated their potential to protect populations in endemic areas or after natural disasters. However, these vaccines do not fulfill all the requirements of the WHO because they fail to confer long-term protection, are not suitable for children under two years, require more than a single dose and require a distribution chain with cold storage. Lastly, other vaccine strategies under development are summarized in this review. Among these strategies, vaccine candidates based on alternative drug delivery systems that have been reported lately in the literature are discussed, such as microparticles, proteoliposomes, LPS subunits, DNA vaccines and rice seeds containing toxin subunits. Preliminary results reported by many groups working on alternative delivery systems for cholera vaccines demonstrate the importance of new technologies in addressing old problems such as cholera. Although a fully ideal vaccine has not yet been designed, promising steps have been reported in the literature resulting in hope for the fight against cholera.