GPEI – Update: Polio this week – As of 28 August 2013

Update: Polio this week – As of 28 August 2013
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Full report: http://www.polioeradication.org/Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisweek.aspx
[Editor’s extract and bolded text]

:: The outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in the Horn of Africa, which affects Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, has spread into two new states of Somalia.
:: In Israel, the number of sewage samples which have tested positive for WPV1 has reached 85; one sewage sample collected in West Bank and Gaza has tested positive for WPV1.

Pakistan
:: One new case of WPV was reported in the past week, a WPV1 from FR Bannu in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with onset of paralysis on 27 July. This is the most recent case in the country and brings the total number of WPV1 cases for 2013 to 25.
:: The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 remains 12.

Chad, Cameroon and Central African Republic
:: In Cameroon, one new cVDPV2 case was reported in the past week, bringing the total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 to three. This new case had onset of paralysis on 19 July (from Extreme-Nord).
:: Central African Republic (CAR) continues to be at serious risk of re-infection due to proximity with Chad, ongoing insecurity and humanitarian crises, and destruction of health infrastructure. :: To minimize the risk and consequences of potential re-infection, two subnational immunization campaigns were conducted in June and July. A SNID is planned for September and a NID for October.

Horn of Africa
:: 20 new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week in Somalia and one in Kenya. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2013 is 142 (128 from Somalia, 13 from Kenya, 1 from Ethiopia). The most recent WPV1 case in the region had onset of paralysis on 30 July (from Somalia).
:: The outbreak is spreading geographically in Somalia, with two new states reporting cases: Galgadud and Gedo. Anticipation of this spread has driven intense vaccination activities across the country, in an effort to raise immunity.

Israel and West Bank and Gaza
:: WPV1 has been detected in 85 sewage samples from 27 sampling sites in Israel, collected from 3 February to 18 August 2013. Initially restricted to southern Israel, WPV1 has now also been detected in environmental sampling sites elsewhere in Israel, indicating transmission throughout the country. A sampling site in Tulkarem in the West Bank has also reported a positive sample, collected on 30 June. No case of paralytic polio has been reported in either Israel or the West Bank and Gaza.
:: To interrupt WPV1 transmission, a supplementary immunization activity (SIA) with bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) targeting children up to the age of nine years was initiated in the southern district of Israel during the week of 5 August; since August 18, the SIA was expanded to all of Israel. The objective of the SIA with OPV is to boost intestinal immunity in children vaccinated with IPV only in order to rapidly interrupt wild poliovirus transmission.
:: Following the positive sample from Tulkarem, subsequent samples in the West Bank and Gaza have all tested negative. Discussions have begun for a vaccination response to the positive sample in the West Bank.

West Africa
:: One new cVDPV2 was reported in the past week from Niger’s Diffa province, with onset of paralysis on 11 July. Niger has not reported a case of cVDPV since 2011. Genetic sequencing has shown that the virus is related to those seen in Cameroon, Chad and (Borno) Nigeria.