Journal of Community Health – HPV Vaccination Series

Journal of Community Health
Volume 38, Issue 6, December 2013

Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Awareness Among Vietnamese Mothers
Jenny K. Yi, Susan C. Lackey, Marion P. Zahn, Juan Castaneda, Jessica P. Hwang
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US and the primary cause of cervical cancer. Vietnamese American women have the highest incidence rates of cervical cancer but one of the lowest HPV vaccination rates. Parental knowledge is an important predictor of HPV vaccination; however, little is known about HPV knowledge in the Vietnamese American community. We aimed to describe the HPV knowledge of Vietnamese mothers in Houston, Texas and their intention to vaccinate their daughters. We conducted face-to-face interviews with Vietnamese mothers who had daughters aged 9–26 years. We collected data on demographics, acculturation, HPV knowledge, and vaccination intention. Knowledge scores (0–5) were calculated using 5 knowledge questions. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of HPV knowledge. Participants had low levels of acculturation by report of reading (31 %) and writing (23 %) English well. Less than 50 % of participants (n = 47) had heard of HPV, and among these, the mean HPV knowledge score was 4. Although only 1 in 3 had discussed HPV with their medical provider, nearly 86 % of participants who had not heard of HPV would vaccinate their daughter if their doctor had recommended it. Good written English skills and belief that the HPV vaccine was not expensive were predictors of HPV awareness. HPV awareness is low among less acculturated Vietnamese mothers in Houston. Future educational efforts about the role of HPV vaccine in preventing cervical cancer should be made in their language when targeting parents of a high risk Vietnamese population.

HPV Vaccination and Sexual Behavior in a Community College Sample
Erica Marchand, Beth A. Glenn, Roshan Bastani
Many US parents are concerned that vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) will communicate implicit approval for sexual activity and be associated with early or risky sexual behavior (Scarinci et al. in J Womens Health 16(8):1224–1233, 2007; Schuler et al. in Sex Transm Infect 87:349–353, 2011) [7, 8]. The aims of this study were to understand (a) whether the HPV vaccine was associated with risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of female adolescents and young adults, and (b) to better understand the chronology of HPV vaccination and sexual behavior. An anonymous web-based survey was used to collect data from 114 female community college students. T test and Chi square analyses were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated groups on age at first intercourse and proportion who had ever had sexual intercourse. Linear multiple regression was used to predict frequency of condom use and number of sexual partners in the past year, using vaccination status and demographic factors as predictors. About 38 % reported receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Many of those vaccinated (45 %) received the vaccine after having initiated sexual activity. The proportion of women who were sexually experienced did not differ by HPV vaccine status, nor did age at first intercourse, number of partners in the past year, or frequency of condom use. Current findings suggest that HPV vaccination is not associated with riskier sexual activity for the young women in this sample. Adolescents and their parents may benefit from education about the need to receive the HPV vaccine before onset of sexual activity.

HPV and HPV Vaccines: The Knowledge Levels, Opinions, and Behavior of Parents
Marlee Grabiel, Thomas J. Reutzel, Sheila Wang…
To measure parent knowledge levels and opinions related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the two vaccines used to prevent it. To measure parent behavior in terms of whether or not to have their children vaccinated. Between June 19, 2012, and August 24, 2012, questionnaires were distributed to parents while waiting for their child to see their pediatrician at a local group practice. The survey was reviewed for face validity by College of Pharmacy social science and clinical faculty members, and an earlier version of it had been used successfully in a published study of biomedical students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine. 129 usable surveys were obtained. 48.1 % of subjects said they learned about the HPV vaccines from the media, while 47.3 % identified health care practitioner(s) as a source of knowledge. The mean score on a 20-item knowledge test regarding the infection and vaccines was 36 % (range 0–80 %). Opinions on the subject varied widely. For example, 22.4 % of subjects agreed that schools should require that students be vaccinated before enrolling, while 3.2 % agreed that vaccination causes patients to become sexually active. Subjects reported vaccination status for 253 children (mean age 13) as follows: 33 % vaccinated; 28 % not vaccinated but will be; 11 % will never be vaccinated; and 28 % not decided. These results are somewhat encouraging, because many parents are hearing about the vaccines from their providers. Although not an equally valid source, the media are also raising awareness. Based on the knowledge and opinion results of this study, there is a need for pharmacists and other providers to educate their patients about the vaccines and the virus and to converse with them regarding the moral and psychological implications of vaccination. Still, it is encouraging that these subjects had or plan to have over half (61 %) of their children vaccinated.

Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Human Papillomavirus Among College Nursing Students at a Minority-Serving Institution
Geri L. Schmotzer, Kerryn W. Reding
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in US women, with Hispanic women at higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic white women. While the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents substantial progress towards cervical cancer prevention, little is currently known about Hispanic student’s beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of college students in the US–Mexico border region following the release of the HPV vaccine for both males and females. This survey was conducted using a convenience sample were participants were recruited from pre-nursing and nursing courses. The self-administered questionnaire ascertained HPV vaccination status, and knowledge and beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. 202 male and female students responded. 28.9 % of respondents reported having received the HPV vaccine. Of the non-vaccinated students under age 27, 27.3 % Hispanic students reported an intention to receive the vaccine. Misinformation about HPV was common and was associated with intention to get vaccinated among non-Hispanic white students. We found a relatively small proportion of unvaccinated Hispanic and non-Hispanic nursing students intend to be vaccinated for HPV. Findings indicate an intervention to increase vaccination rates among college-aged students may not be as straightforward as increasing knowledge of HPV. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and recommend HPV to underserved patients. Thus, educating nursing students regarding HPV and the associated cancers is paramount if we are to encourage ethnic minorities to receive the HPV vaccine.