Estimation of the potential overall impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer cases and deaths

Volume 32, Issue 7, Pages 755-896 (7 February 2014)

Estimation of the potential overall impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer cases and deaths
Original Research Article
Pages 733-739
Georges Van Kriekinge, Xavier Castellsagué, David Cibula, Nadia Demarteau
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers potential for primary prevention of HPV-related pre-cancers and cancers as demonstrated in clinical trials. Mathematical models have estimated the potential real-life impact of vaccination on the burden of cervical cancer (CC). However, these are restricted to evaluations in a limited number of countries.

Potential decline in CC cases and deaths with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine of young girls naïve to HPV, was estimated at steady-state (vaccine coverage: 0–100%) based on clinical trial and country-specific incidence data. Data on vaccine efficacy were taken from the end of study PATRICIA trial of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine. The numbers of cases and deaths due to HPV-16/18 were estimated and compared with those due to any HPV type to estimate the additional cases prevented. This difference estimates CC cases and deaths avoided due to protection against non-vaccine HPV types. Cost-offsets due to reductions in CC treatment were estimated for five countries (Brazil, Canada, Italy, Malaysia and South African Republic) using country-specific unit cost data. Additionally, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3)-related burden (cases and treatment costs) prevented by vaccination were estimated for two countries (Italy and Malaysia).

HPV vaccination could prevent a substantial number of CC cases and deaths in countries worldwide, with associated cost-offsets due to reduced CC treatment. Cross-protection increased the estimated potential number of CC cases and deaths prevented by 34 and 18% in Africa and Oceania, respectively. Moreover, vaccination could result in a substantial reduction in the number of CIN2/3 lesions and associated costs.

HPV vaccination could reduce the burden of CC and precancerous lesions in countries worldwide, part of disease burden reduction being related to protection against non HPV-16/18 related types.