Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 92, Number 6, June 2014

Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Volume 92, Number 6, June 2014, 385-464
Special theme: BRICS and global health

Impact of BRICS’ investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market
Miloud Kaddar, Julie Milstien & Sarah Schmitt
Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector’s price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS’ accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes.

The economic and social benefits of childhood vaccinations in BRICS
Andrew J Mirelman a, Sachiko Ozawa a & Simrun Grewal a
a. Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, E8132, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, United States of America.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2014;92:454-456. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.132597
Initial text
The international community has successfully promoted childhood vaccination as an essential public health intervention. This has been accomplished through efforts such as the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Expanded Programme on Immunization and more recently, the establishment of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance), a global health partnership committed to ensuring access to low-cost immunization in developing countries. While such global efforts have resulted in large increases in vaccine coverage worldwide, there is still a large population that remains uncovered. Inadequate immunization coverage is apparent among middle-income countries. As middle-income countries do not receive support from the GAVI Alliance, lack of funds may account for low coverage, and vaccine delivery in these settings may suffer from inefficiencies that have been resolved in high-income countries.1
The potential benefits of expanded vaccine coverage are evident among the following five emerging economies: Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – often referred to as BRICS. These countries have seen high economic growth in recent years – expanding their capacity to produce, procure and provide health care. The countries represent a range of lower-middle-income (India), upper-middle-income (Brazil, China and South Africa) and high-income (Russian Federation) countries. They include the two most populous countries in the world – China and India. Collectively, BRICS have a population of nearly 239 million children under the age of five years…