From Google Scholar+ [to 21 June 2014]

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Nature Reviews Immunology
Published online: 13 June 2014 doi:10.1038/nri3694
From empiricism to rational design: a personal perspective of the evolution of vaccine development
Ennio De Gregorio & Rino Rappuoli
Vaccination, which is the most effective medical intervention that has ever been introduced, originated from the observation that individuals who survived a plague or smallpox would not get the disease twice. To mimic the protective effects of natural infection, Jenner — and later Pasteur — inoculated individuals with attenuated or killed disease-causing agents. This empirical approach inspired a century of vaccine development and the effective prophylaxis of many infectious diseases. From the 1980s, several waves of new technologies have enabled the development of novel vaccines that would not have been possible using the empirical approach. The technological revolution in the field of vaccination is now continuing, and it is delivering novel and safer vaccines. In this Timeline article, we provide our views on the transition from empiricism to rational vaccine design.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
2014, 66 Suppl 2:S209-16
Lessons Learned From HPV Vaccine Delivery in Low-Resource Settings and Opportunities for HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care Among Adolescents.
Tsu VD, Cernuschi T, LaMontagne DS
*PATH, Seattle, WA; and GAVI Alliance Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to prevent cervical cancer have become available in recent years and presented a new challenge to health systems, since they prevent a sexually transmitted virus and are most effective if they are delivered to young adolescent girls, a group not widely served by other health programs. Demonstration and pilot HPV vaccination programs undertaken in the past 7-8 years in low-resource settings have produced lessons that may be more broadly applied to other adolescent health interventions, particularly to those that attempt to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify formal and informal evaluations of HPV vaccine use in low- and middle-income countries. Special attention was devoted to the detailed evaluations carried out on large demonstration projects in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.
RESULTS: These lessons fall into 2 main categories: service delivery operations and community outreach and mobilization. Operational issues included venue and timing of vaccinations, definition of target population, micro-planning and coordination, integration with other services, and training. Community issues included consent, messages and channels, endorsement and support, and timing of mobilization efforts.
DISCUSSION: Careful planning, good coordination across sectors and levels, and sensitive attention to the expressed needs for information and preferences for communication channels among youth, parents, and communities more broadly were among the key lessons that are relevant for HIV interventions, but many of the smaller details were also important.
CONCLUSIONS: Applying or adapting these lessons to adolescent HIV services could accelerate effective program design and enhance success.

American Journal of Public Health
First Look
Sources of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Awareness of HIV Vaccine Trials
Michael P. Arnold, PhD, MPH, MSW, Michele Andrasik, PhD, Stewart Landers, JD, MCP, Shelly Karuna, MD, MPH, Matthew J. Mimiaga, ScD, MPH, Steven Wakefield, Kenneth Mayer, MD, Susan Buchbinder, MD, and Beryl A. Koblin, PhDMP Arnold, M Andrasik, S Landers, S Karuna… – American journal of public …, 2014
(Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 12, 2014: e1–e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301893)
Objectives. We explored the relative effects of 2 awareness components—exposure and attention—on racial/ethnic differences in HIV vaccine trial awareness among men who have sex with men (MSM).
Methods. Surveys assessing awareness of and attitudes toward HIV vaccine trials were administered to 1723 MSM in 6 US cities. Proxy measures of exposure included use of HIV resources and other health care services, community involvement, income, and residence. Attention proxy measures included research attitudes, HIV susceptibility, and HIV message fatigue. Using logistic regression models, we assessed the extent to which these proxies accounted for racial/ethnic differences in vaccine trial awareness.
Results. White MSM reported significantly (P  < .01) higher rates of HIV vaccine trial awareness (22%) compared with Latino (17%), Black (13%) and “other” (13%) MSM. Venue-based exposure proxies and research-directed attitudinal attention proxies were significantly associated with awareness, but only accounted for the White-Latino disparity in awareness. No proxies accounted for the White-Black or White-“other” differentials in awareness.
Conclusions. Sources of disparities in awareness of HIV vaccine trials remain to be explained. Future trials seeking to promote diverse participation should explore additional exposure and attention mediators.

Special Focus Newsletters
June 20, 2014
Lead Story – 8th African Rotavirus Symposium highlights science, policy, and progress
Delegates empowered to advocate for sustained rotavirus vaccine introduction