American Journal of Infection Control – July 2014

American Journal of Infection Control
Vol 42 | No. 7 | July 2014 | Pages 697-818
http://www.ajicjournal.org/current

Trends in racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination coverage among adults during the 2007-08 through 2011-12 seasons
Peng-Jun Lu, MD, PhD, Alissa O’Halloran, MSPH, Leah Bryan, MPH, Erin D. Kennedy, DVM, MPH,
Helen Ding, MD, MSPH, Samuel B. Graitcer, MD, Tammy A. Santibanez, PhD, Ankita Meghani, MSPH, James A. Singleton, PhD
Abstract
Background
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. The objective of this study was to assess trends in racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination coverage among adults in the United States.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2007-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess influenza vaccination coverage by age, presence of medical conditions, and racial/ethnic groups during the 2007-08 through 2011-12 seasons.
Results
During the 2011-12 season, influenza vaccination coverage was significantly lower among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites among most of the adult subgroups, with smaller disparities observed for adults age 18-49 years compared with other age groups. Vaccination coverage for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults increased significantly from the 2007-08 through the 2011-12 season for most of the adult subgroups based on the NHIS (test for trend, P < .05). Coverage gaps between racial/ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic whites persisted at similar levels from the 2007-08 through the 2011-12 seasons, with similar results from the NHIS and BRFSS.
Conclusions
Influenza vaccination coverage among most racial/ethnic groups increased from the 2007-08 through the 2011-12 seasons, but substantial racial and ethnic disparities remained in most age groups. Targeted efforts are needed to improve coverage and reduce these disparities.

Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers
Surasak Wiboonchutikul, MD, Weerawat Manosuthi, MD, Chariya Sangsajja, MD, Varaporn Thientong, RN, Sirirat Likanonsakul, MSc, Somkid Srisopha, BSc, Patamavadee Termvises, RN, Jitlada Rujitip, RN, Suda Loiusirirotchanakul, PhD, Pilaipan Puthavathana, PhD
Abstract
A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P < .001). The mean antibody level against diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P < .001). Td booster vaccination should be considered for Thai HCWs to maintain immunity against diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand.