Volume 32, Issue 33, Pages 4111-4242 (16 July 2014)
Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of mumps vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan
Original Research Article
Shu-ling Hoshi, Masahide Kondo, Ichiro Okubo
The most common preventative measure against mumps is vaccination with mumps vaccine. In most parts of the world, mumps vaccine is routinely delivered through live attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine. In Japan, receiving mumps vaccine is voluntary and vaccine uptake rate is less than 30%. The introduction of mumps vaccine into routine vaccination schedule has become one of the current topics in health policy and has raised the need to evaluate efficient ways in protecting children from mumps-related diseases in Japan.
We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of 11 different programmes; a single-dose programme at 12–16 months and 10 two-dose programmes with second dose uptakes at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Our base-case analyse set the cost per shot at ¥6951 (US$72; 1US$ = 96.8).
Results show that single-dose programme dominates status quo. On the other hand, ICERs of all 10 two-dose programmes are under ¥6,300,000 (US$65,082) per QALY from payer’s perspective while it ranged from cost-saving to <¥7,000,000 (US$72,314) per QALY from societal perspective.
By adopting WHO’s classification that an intervention is cost-effective if ICER (in QALY) is between one and three times of GDP as a criterion, either of the vaccination programme is concluded as cost-effective from payer’s or societal perspectives. Likewise, to uptake second dose at 3–5 years old is more favourable than an uptake at any other age because of lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.