POLIO [to 28 June 2014]

POLIO [to 28 June 2014]

GPEI Update: Polio this week – As of 25 June 2014
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Editor’s Excerpt and text bolding
Full report: http://www.polioeradication.org/Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisweek.aspx
:: On 18 June, Brazil reported that wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) had been detected in a sewage sample collected in March 2014 at Viracopos International Airport in Sao Paolo state. Genetic sequencing indicates that this virus is most closely related to the virus that is circulating in Equatorial Guinea. No one in Brazil has been paralyzed by the virus nor is there evidence of transmission within the population of that country. This importation is a reminder of the importance of responding to the central Africa outbreak efficiently, of the critical need to vaccinate residents of Equatorial Guinea before international travel, and of the need for all countries to maintain high immunity against polio.
:: In the Bara sub-division of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan, a successful door-to-door polio vaccination campaign took place for the first time in five years reaching more than 42,000 children. The campaign – led by the FATA Secretariat and conducted by volunteers – was made possible by new financial support from the United Arab Emirates.
:: On 20 June, the Polio Oversight Board (POB) – made up of the heads of GPEI partners WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and senior leadership from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – met for the third time this year to examine progress against the Strategic Plan and review updates on GPEI management, financials and communications. Among other decisions, the POB endorsed additional activities to protect at-risk polio-free areas.
Nigeria
;: One new WPV1 case was reported in the past week from the previously uninfected Sumaila LGA, Kano state, with onset of paralysis on 17 May. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 is four.
:: Two new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week including one from Damboa LGA, Borno state with onset of paralysis on 2 May, and one from the previously uninfected Gwale LGA, Kano state with onset of paralysis on 10 May. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 is nine…
Pakistan
:: One new WPV1 case was reported in the past week from North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) with onset of paralysis on 28 May. The total number of WPV1 cases reported from Pakistan for 2014 is 83.
:: Six new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week including three cases from North Waziristan, FATA, and three cases from FR Bannu, FATA. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 27 May (from FR Bannu). The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 is 16.
:: North Waziristan is the district with the largest number of children being paralyzed by poliovirus (both wild and cVDPV2) in the world. Immunization activities have been suspended by local leaders since June 2012. Immunizations in neighboring high-risk areas are being intensified, to further boost population immunity levels in those areas and prevent further spread of this outbreak. With thousands of people moving out of North Waziristan following the recent military operation against insurgents, the polio programme has been working with local government to identify displaced populations and reach them with the polio vaccine at either permanent transit points, or camps, or once they reach host communities.
:: According to the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Polio Eradication in Pakistan, convened in Islamabad from 2-3 June, the country is not in a position to interrupt transmission without radical change in reservoir areas including FATA, Peshawar, and Karachi. To put the program back on the path to polio eradication, the TAG recommended full political commitment and ownership, mobilization of national assets to facilitate access of vaccination teams, restoration of vaccination in FATA and addressing insecurity and chronic gaps in reservoirs and high risk areas. The TAG also recommended that all provinces integrate communications and social mobilization activities in their planning and operations.
Central Africa
:: One new WPV1 case was reported in the past week from Equatorial Guinea. The case is from the previously uninfected Mbini district in Litoral province and had onset of paralysis on 3 May.

Please see Polio eradication in Syria, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, in Journal Watch below.

Polio vaccine effort in Syria reaches 1.4 million children as volunteers brave violence
Washington Post | 22 June 2014
By Tik Root Ju
Excerpt
GAZIANTEP, Turkey — Despite grave danger, a campaign to combat the spread of polio in rebel-held Syria has been surprisingly successful, with volunteers inoculating about 1.4 million children since the beginning of the year.
The reemergence of polio in Syria in October alarmed health organizations, which feared that factors such as tainted water, dysfunctional sanitation systems and a mobile population could contribute to a broader, region-wide epidemic.
In response, a coalition of nonprofit organizations quickly recruited and deployed thousands of volunteers in the country’s embattled north, where they won the cooperation of rebel fighters and braved shelling and airstrikes to administer the vaccine to children under age 5. Four volunteers have been killed in the process, but there has not been a confirmed case of polio in Syria in nearly five months….

The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) for 27 June 2014, vol. 89, 26 (pp. 289–296) includes:
:: Index of countries/areas; Index, Volume 89, 2014, Nos. 1–26
:: Performance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and incidence of poliomyelitis,
http://www.who.int/entity/wer/2014/wer8926.pdf?ua=1