POLIO [to 10 January 2015]

POLIO [to 10 January 2015]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

GPEI Update: Polio this week – As of 7 January 2014
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
[Editor’s Excerpt and text bolding]
Full report: http://www.polioeradication.org/Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisweek.aspx
:: The last few years have seen the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) evolve and grow in response to the threats posed to the world by the final strongholds of the poliovirus. Despite being more geographically limited than ever before, at the end of 2014 the virus continues to pose challenges that must be faced in 2015 if we are to protect children from this disease forever. Polio eradication efforts in 2015 will have five priorities: refining surveillance to catch any remaining virus, keeping Africa and the Middle East polio-free, providing a surge of support to Pakistan and Afghanistan, preparing for the withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type 2 and continuing to demonstrate and build on the differences that the polio programme makes to strengthen routine immunization programmes. More

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Selected country report content:
Afghanistan
:: Two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past two weeks in Panjwayi district of Kandahar province. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 4 December. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 in Afghanistan is now 28 compared to 14 in 2013. The bulk of these cases are linked to cross-border transmission with neighbouring Pakistan.
:: Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned for 11 – 13 and 25 – 27 January in high risk areas of the south and east using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). On 15 – 17 February, SNIDs will take place across the entire south of the country, also using bivalent OPV. The next National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned for March using a combination of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and trivalent OPV.
Nigeria
:: One new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) case was reported in the last week. This most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde district of Yobe state. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria is now 29.
Pakistan
:: Six new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past 2 weeks. Two are from Balochistan (1 in Killa Abdullah district and the other in newly infected Chaghai district); 2 from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, both in Peshawar; and 2 from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Khyber Agency. The total number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2014 is now 297, compared to 93 in 2013. The most recent WPV1 cases had onset of paralysis on 15 December in Khyber Agency.
:: Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas, in previously inaccessible areas of FATA. At exit and entry points of conflict-affected areas 100 permanent vaccination points are being used to reach internally displaced families as they move in and out of the inaccessible area.
West Africa
:: The Ebola crisis in western Africa continues to have an impact on the implementation or polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in these countries have been postponed and the quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance has markedly decreased this year. National Immunization Days (NIDs) have been rescheduled for Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from the 27 February to 31 March. The programme continues to monitor the situation with concern.
:: Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio to create a buffer zone surrounding the Ebola-affected countries.
:: NIDs are planned using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in Niger and Benin on 27 February to 2 March, and tentatively in Mali in March with dates to be confirmed. From the 27 to 31 March, NIDs will take place in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger and Senegal using trivalent OPV.