24 April 2015 vol 348, issue 6233, pages 369-472
An Ebola whole-virus vaccine is protective in nonhuman primates
Andrea Marzi1,*, Peter Halfmann2,*, Lindsay Hill-Batorski2, Friederike Feldmann3, W. Lesley Shupert1, Gabriele Neumann2, Heinz Feldmann1, Yoshihiro Kawaoka2,4,5,
1Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA.
2Influenza Research Institute, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
3Rocky Mountain Veterinary Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA.
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Virology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
5ERATO Infection-Induced Host Responses Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan.
Zaire ebolavirus is the causative agent of the current outbreak of hemorrhagic fever disease in West Africa. Previously, we showed that a whole Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine based on a replication-defective EBOV (EBOVΔVP30) protects immunized mice and guinea pigs against lethal challenge with rodent-adapted EBOV. Here, we demonstrate that EBOVΔVP30 protects nonhuman primates against lethal infection with EBOV. Although EBOVΔVP30 is replication-incompetent, we additionally inactivated the vaccine with hydrogen peroxide; the chemically inactivated vaccine remained antigenic and protective in nonhuman primates. EBOVΔVP30 thus represents a safe, efficacious, whole-EBOV vaccine candidate that differs from other EBOV vaccine platforms in that it presents all viral proteins and the viral RNA to the host immune system, which might contribute to protective immune responses.