Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics – Volume 11, Issue 4, 2015

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 11, Issue 4, 2015
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

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A review of economic evaluations of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults and the elderly
Open access
DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1011954
S Dirmesropiana, JG Wooda, CR MacIntyreab & AT Newalla*
pages 818-825
Abstract
The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) is already recommended for some adult groups and is being considered for wider use in many countries. In order to identify the strengths and limitations of the existing economic evaluation studies of PCV13 in adults and the elderly a literature review was conducted. The majority of the studies identified (9 out of 10) found that PCV13 was cost-effective in adults and/or the elderly. However, these results were based on assumptions that could not always be informed by robust evidence. Key uncertainties included the efficacy of PCV13 against non-invasive pneumonia and the herd immunity effect of childhood vaccination programs. Emerging trial evidence on PCV13 in adults from the Netherlands offers the ability to parameterize future economic evaluations with empirical efficacy data. However, it is important that these estimates are used thoughtfully when they are transferred to other settings

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany
Open access
DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1011561
Emmanuelle Préauda*, Mathieu Uharta, Katharina Böhmb, Pamela Aidelsburgerb, Delphine Angerc, Florence Bianicc & Nathalie Largerona
pages 884-896
Abstract
Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature.

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Evaluation of a vaccination strategy by serosurveillance data: The case of varicella
Open access
DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1009818
Silvio Tafuri*, Maria Serena Gallonea, Maria Filomena Gallonea, Maria Giovanna Cappellia, Maria Chironnaa & Cinzia Germinarioa
pages 897-900
Abstract
Serological studies have many important epidemiologic applications. They can be used to investigate acquisition of various infections in different populations, measure the induction of an immune response in the host, evaluate the persistence of antibody, identify appropriate target groups and the age for vaccination. Serological studies can also be used to determine the vaccine efficacy. Since 1995 a varicella vaccine is available and it has been recommended in several countries (e.g. USA, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, etc.). Nevertheless few varicella seroprevalence studies in countries that adopted an URV are available. It is related to the relatively recent introduction of the vaccination and to the lack of structured and collaborative surveillance systems based on serosurvey at national or regional level. Varicella seroprevalence data collected before the introduction of vaccination strategies allowed to establish the age of vaccination (e.g., indicated the opportunity to offer the vaccine to Italian susceptible adolescents). In the post-vaccination era, seroprevalence data demonstrated vaccine as immunogenic and excluded an increase of the age of infection linked to the vaccination strategy. New seroprevalence studies should be performed to answer to open questions, such as the long-term immunity and the change of the herpes zoster epidemiological pattern related to the vaccine.

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Vaccination attitudes and mobile readiness: A survey of expectant and new mothers
Open access
DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1009807
Katherine M Atkinsona, Robin Ducharmeab, Jacqueline Westeindea, Sarah E Wilsoncd, Shelley L Deekscd, Dante Pascalie & Kumanan Wilsonabef*
pages 1039-1045
Abstract
Sub-optimal vaccination coverage and recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases serve as a reminder that vaccine hesitancy remains a concern. ImmunizeCA, a new smartphone app to help track immunizations, may address several reasons for not vaccinating. We conducted a study to describe demographic variables, attitudes, beliefs and information sources regarding pediatric vaccination in a sample of childbearing women who were willing to download an immunization app. We also sought to measure their current mobile usage behaviors and determine if there is an association between participant demographics, attitudes, beliefs and information sources regarding pediatric vaccination and mobile usage. We recruited participants using a combination of passive and active methods at a tertiary care hospital in Ottawa, Canada. We used surveys to collect demographic information, examine attitudes, behavior, and information sources regarding immunization and self-reported mobile phone usage. A total of 54 women participated. The majority had positive attitudes toward vaccination (96%) and intended to vaccinate their children (98%). Participants were interested in information on pediatric vaccination (94%), and found information from public health the most reliable and accessible (78%). Participants also trusted immunization information from their doctor or nurse and public health (83%) more than other sources. There was variability in participant use of mobile apps for other purposes. The median participant mobile readiness score was 3.2. We found no significant associations between participant age, behavior and attitudes regarding vaccination and mobile readiness scores. This is the first evaluation of mobile readiness for a smartphone app to track immunizations. Our findings suggest that there exists an opportunity to provide reliable information on vaccination through mobile devices to better inform the public, however predictors of individual engagement with these technologies merits further study.