Challenges in the Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Postvaccination Era

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (JPIDS)
Volume 4 Issue 2 June 2015
http://jpids.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

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Vaccine Exemptions: When Do Individual Rights Trump Societal Good?
Paul A. Offit
Author Affiliations
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Abramson Research Building
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Excerpt
To the Editors—This year’s measles epidemic is different.
Last year, in 2014, about 650 people in the United States suffered measles, an outbreak larger than any in 20 years. Neither the press nor the public took much notice.
This year, as of February 17, 2015, more than 140 people have been infected with measles in 17 states. Now, the media and the public have surely taken notice. For about 2 weeks, articles appeared daily in every major newspaper and segments aired on every national television program. ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN, FOX, as well as the New York Times, Washington Post, and Wall Street Journal covered the 2015 measles outbreak in the manner of a national emergency. Why the difference? One possibility is that, at the current rate, this year’s outbreak will be twice as large as last year’s. But the more likely difference is where these outbreaks occurred. Last year’s outbreak centered on an insular Amish community in Ohio; this year’s epicenter was Disneyland—a shared space, a commons. Disneyland, “the happiest place on earth,”…

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Challenges in the Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Postvaccination Era
Kattia Camacho-Badilla1, Luiza H. Falleiros-Arlant2, José Brea3 and María L. Avila-Aguero1
Author Affiliations
1Pediatric Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Nacional de Niños, “Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera”, San José, Costa Rica
2Pediatrics, Facultade de Medicina da Universidade de Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil
3Pediatrics, Centro Universitario Médico del Este, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Accepted April 6, 2015.
Excerpt
Worldwide, meningitis and pneumonia are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths, accounting for 11% of deaths in children <5 years globally in the pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era [1], and it causes significant disease burden in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean.

According to data published by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in July 2014, 25 countries from LA and the Caribbean have introduced PCVs in their immunization schedules. Bolivia is the latest country that has introduced the 13-PCV in their national immunization program. The First Latin American Meeting of Pneumococcus: Epidemiology and Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines was held in San José, Costa Rica in August 2014 given the importance of analyzing the data of the post-PCVs era and its impact since their introduction in different countries…