Harnessing Case Isolation and Ring Vaccination to Control Ebola

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 30 May 2015)

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Harnessing Case Isolation and Ring Vaccination to Control Ebola
Chad Wells, Dan Yamin, Martial L. Ndeffo-Mbah, Natasha Wenzel, Stephen G. Gaffney, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Mosoka Fallah, Tolbert G. Nyenswah, Frederick L. Altice, Katherine E. Atkins, Alison P. Galvani
Research Article | published 29 May 2015 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003794
Abstract
As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts.
Author Summary
Public health efforts for controlling the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa have focused on contact tracing and isolation of symptomatic individuals. In addition, substantial resources have been committed to scaling up the production of experimental vaccines. Ring vaccination—the vaccination of the contacts of an infected individual—was successfully implemented to achieve smallpox eradication. Ring vaccination is particularly feasible and effective in settings where the supply of vaccines is limited and disease incidence is low. Using a disease transmission model, we evaluated the benefit of adding ring vaccination to case isolation in Liberia and Sierra Leone. We found that ring vaccination could have averted up to 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone, thereby saving lives and intervention resources.

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Hepatitis B Vaccines and HPV Vaccines Have Been Hailed as Major Public Health Achievements in Preventing Cancer—Could a Schistosomiasis Vaccine be the Third?
Michael H. Hsieh, Julia M. L. Brotherton, Afzal A. Siddiqui
Editorial | published 28 May 2015 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003598