Science – 09 September 2016

09 September 2016 Vol 353, Issue 6304

Ebola and Zika: Cautionary tales
By Michael T. Osterholm
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1073
The emergence of Zika in the Americas is a stark reminder of how quickly public health challenges of infectious diseases can change. The need for a safe and effective vaccine is immediate. Yet, like the Ebola epidemic 2 years ago, we find ourselves without a vaccine to combat this latest threat. When surveillance points to a possible emergence of a new infectious disease of potential public health importance, we need procedural and funding mechanisms that can quickly identify candidate vaccines and drive research and development toward licensure and production. Even if such a vaccine is not yet licensed, having it ready for immediate large trials when a regional crisis occurs will be a major advantage over our current reactive system.

Zika vaccine trials
By Marc Lipsitch, Benjamin J. Cowling
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1094-1095 Full Access
There are new and familiar challenges in the race for timely and effective vaccines
Promising data for candidate vaccines against Zika virus infection reported by Abbink et al. (1) on page 1129 of this issue raise hopes that one or more Zika virus vaccines may soon be ready for efficacy trials. Recent years have seen a barrage of emerging infectious diseases, including those caused by new pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and those that are newly salient because of increased geographic spread, higher incidence, or genetic change, such as influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. Developing effective vaccines is a central goal for such pathogens.

Research Articles
Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys
By Peter Abbink, Rafael A. Larocca, Rafael A. De La Barrera, Christine A. Bricault, Edward T. Moseley, Michael Boyd, Marinela Kirilova, Zhenfeng Li, David Ng’ang’a, Ovini Nanayakkara, Ramya Nityanandam, Noe B. Mercado, Erica N. Borducchi, Arshi Agarwal, Amanda L. Brinkman, Crystal Cabral, Abishek Chandrashekar, Patricia B. Giglio, David Jetton, Jessica Jimenez, Benjamin C. Lee, Shanell Mojta, Katherine Molloy, Mayuri Shetty, George H. Neubauer, Kathryn E. Stephenson, Jean Pierre S. Peron, Paolo M. de A. Zanotto, Johnathan Misamore, Brad Finneyfrock, Mark G. Lewis, Galit Alter, Kayvon Modjarrad, Richard G. Jarman, Kenneth H. Eckels, Nelson L. Michael, Stephen J. Thomas, Dan H. Barouch
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1129-1132
Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans.