POLIO [to 5 November 2016]

POLIO [to 5 November 2016]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 2 November 2016
:: The new Transition Independent Monitoring Board (Transition IMB) has now been established, to monitor and guide polio transition (previously referred to as ‘legacy’) planning. The Transition IMB is separate from the regular IMB which monitors and guides progress towards interrupt of transmission of polioviruses. The Transition IMB will hold its inaugural meeting next week in London, United Kingdom (UK). For more about the Transition IMB and transition planning.

:: In Nigeria this week, experts from the Government and international partners are convening a urgent meeting to assess the impact of outbreak response conducted thus far. The group will look at progress achieved in boosting immunity levels and strengthening surveillance, and review additional strategies and tactics to further intensify the outbreak response. A similar review will be conducted next week looking at the broader regional outbreak response across the entire Lake Chad basin.

:: A new field study conducted in Sri Lanka has concluded that fractional dose inactivated polio vaccine (fIPV) is as effective as full-dose IPV in boosting mucosal immunity in OPV-primed populations. Boosting mucosal immunity is critical to interrupting virus transmission in a community. Previous studies had already confirmed that fIPV was as effective at inferring humoral immunity as full-dose IPV. This latest evidence gives further weight to the recommendation of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE), for countries to consider adopting fIPV in both their supplementary and routine immunization activities. This approach could significantly improve the global IPV supply situation which is currently constrained, by reducing the volume of IPV needed to cover a population. Countries are increasingly using fIPV, both in routine and vaccination campaigns, including Pakistan which conducted a mass campaign using fIPV just last week.

:: News this week: continuing our focus on innovating strategies to facilitate eradication, an analysis reveals how new and strengthened surveillance in Nigeria helped detect the outbreak against the backdrop of insecurity and a humanitarian crisis. More.

Country Updates [Selected Excerpts]
Afghanistan
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, from Paktika province, with onset of paralysis on 28 September, bringing the total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 to nine. It is the most recent case in the country…
:: Paktika province is close to the border with Pakistan, and constitutes a common WPV transmission corridor posing a major risk to both national programmes. This corridor of transmission ranges from southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP)/Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan through south-eastern Afghanistan in Paktika, Paktya and Khost provinces.
:: Both countries are continuing to strengthen coordination on supplementary immunization activities as well as surveillance, in order to maximise the impact of eradication efforts and address the common reservoir in a joint manner. This includes ensuring the vaccination of travellers associated with large-scale population movements between the two countries.
:: Elsewhere in the country, efforts continue to further strengthen immunization and surveillance activities. Again in close collaboration with Pakistan, attention is focusing on stopping the joint WPV transmission corridor in the east, ranging from greater Peshawar/Khyber on the Pakistan side to Nangarhar/Kunar/Laghman on the Afghanistan side; and in the south, from Quetta in Pakistan to Kandahar/Helmand in Afghanistan.