UNAIDS – World AIDS Day message 2016

UNAIDS [to 26 November 2106]
http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/

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Press statement
World AIDS Day message 2016
1 December 2016
Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations
Today, we commemorate World AIDS Day—we stand in solidarity with the 78 million people who have become infected with HIV and remember the 35 million who have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the first cases of HIV were reported.

The world has committed to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. We are seeing that countries are getting on the Fast-Track—more than 18 million people are on life-saving HIV treatment and country after country is on track to virtually eliminate HIV transmission from mother to child.

We are winning against the AIDS epidemic, but we are not seeing progress everywhere. The number of new HIV infections is not declining among adults, with young women particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV.

We know that for girls in sub-Saharan Africa, the transition to adulthood is a particularly dangerous time. Young women are facing a triple threat: a high risk of HIV infection, low rates of HIV testing and poor adherence to HIV treatment.

Coinfections of people living with HIV, such as tuberculosis (TB), cervical cancer and hepatitis C, are at risk of putting the 2020 target of fewer than 500,000 AIDS-related deaths out of reach. TB caused about a third of AIDS-related deaths in 2015, while women living with HIV are at four to five times greater risk of developing cervical cancer. Taking AIDS out of isolation remains an imperative if the world is to reach the 2020 target.

With access to treatment, people living with HIV are living longer. Investing in treatment is paying off, but people older than 50 who are living with HIV, including people who are on treatment, are at increased risk of developing age-associated noncommunicable diseases, affecting HIV disease progression.

AIDS is not over, but it can be if we tailor the response to individual needs at particular times in life. Whatever our individual situation may be, we all need access to the tools to protect us from HIV and to access antiretroviral medicines should we need them. A life-cycle approach to HIV that finds solutions for everyone at every stage of life can address the complexities of HIV. Risks and challenges change as people go through life, highlighting the need to adapt HIV prevention and treatment strategies from birth to old age.

The success we have achieved so far gives us hope for the future, but as we look ahead we must remember not to be complacent. We cannot stop now. This is the time to move forward together to ensure that all children start their lives free from HIV, that young people and adults grow up and stay free from HIV and that treatment becomes more accessible so that everyone stays AIDS-free.

A new strategic direction for behavioral and social sciences research at NIH

NIH [to 26 November 2106]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases

November 23, 2016
A new strategic direction for behavioral and social sciences research at NIH
Strategic plan focuses on scientific priorities which reflect key research challenges that OBSSR is uniquely positioned to address.
The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health has released a new strategic plan for 2017 through 2021. The plan focuses on scientific priorities, which reflect key research challenges that OBSSR is uniquely positioned to address. Developed with considerable input from internal and external NIH stakeholders, the plan ensures OBSSR continues to fulfill its mission.

While it is widely accepted that behavioral and social factors account for approximately half of the premature deaths in the United States, understanding how these behavioral and social factors interact with biology and can be modified to improve health requires a robust and rigorous behavioral and social sciences research agenda. Recent scientific and technological advances in the biomedical, behavioral, and social sciences are generating massive amounts of information from the molecular and genetic levels to clinical and community outcomes. NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., and OBSSR Director William T. Riley, Ph.D., wrote an editorial published today in Science Translational Medicine (link is external) that highlights some of the scientific and technological advances that are transforming the behavioral and social sciences.

OBSSR’s strategic priorities are to: improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research; enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research; and facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice.

To address these priorities and broader NIH efforts in the behavioral and social sciences, OBSSR will rely on four foundational processes:
:: Communicating behavioral and social sciences research findings
:: Coordinating behavioral and social sciences research programs across the NIH and integrating behavioral and social sciences research within the larger NIH research enterprise
:: Training the next generation of behavioral and social science researchers
:: Evaluating the impact of behavioral and social sciences research and addressing scientific policies that support this research

Announcements

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) [to 26 November 2106]
http://cepi.net/
CEPI Newsletter 21 November 2016
[Excerpt]
CEPI policies – invitation to feedback
Over the last two months, the CEPI Secretariat has been working with colleagues from the
founding partners to draft CEPI’s core policies to reflect CEPI’s operating principles and
provide guidance for potential awardees during the call for proposal process. The team
has also consulted with individuals working with Product Development Partnerships
and researchers in this field.

We now invite your comments and feedback on these draft policies on equitable access,
shared risks/benefits and management of IP http://cepi.net/resources#CEPI-Policies-Draft
. The open public consultation period is from today through to COB CET 2 December,
2016. Please send feedback to cepi@fhi.no.

Following receipt of feedback during the open public consultation period, the Secretariat
will amend the policies as required and submit them to the CEPI Board for approval prior
to their release with the call for proposals.

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EDCTP [to 26 November 2106]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials.

23 November 2016
Stakeholder meeting reports published: diarrhoeal diseases and lower respiratory tract infections
EDCTP published two reports of the stakeholder meetings on diarrhoeal diseases and lower respiratory tract infections, respectively. The meetings for these fields added to our scope under the second programme took place in Amsterdam, The Netherlands on 5 and 6 July 2016. Their aim was to consult experts in these fields in order to inform EDCTP’s funding strategy and future work plans related to these disease areas.. Representatives from academic and research institutions, funding agencies, product development partnerships among others were invited to participate.

On 5 July 2016, Prof. Philippe Sansonetti (Institut Pasteur and Collège de France, France) and Dr Jeffrey Mphahlele (South African Medical Research Council, South Africa) chaired the meeting on diarrhoeal diseases which featured three speakers and sessions with focus groups. Download report (PDF)

On 6 July 2016, Prof. Jeremy Brown (University College London, United Kingdom) steered the discussions on lower respiratory tract infections in response to six speakers. Download report (PDF)
The objectives of both meetings were to review the research landscape, available interventions and products in development, and to identify short and medium term priorities for EDCTP in terms of disease, research and intervention.

EDCTP regularly organises thematic stakeholder meetings as part of its ongoing consultation process. The purpose of thematic stakeholder meetings is to contribute to shaping the programme’s strategic research agenda, funding approach and strategic alignment with work of other partners involved in clinical development of interventions against poverty-related diseases.

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Industry Watch [to 26 November 2106]
:: GSK receives FDA approval for expanded indication for FluLaval® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for infants 6 months and older
PHILADELPHIA, Nov. 21, 2016 /PRNewswire/ — GSK [LSE/NYSE: GSK] announced today it has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research expanding the indication for FluLaval® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) to include use in children 6 months and older. Prior to this, the vaccine was only approved for active immunization against influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses, in persons 3 years of age and older…

IFPMA [to 26 November 2106]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
23 November 2016
International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) head announces departure
Geneva, 23 November 2016 – After seven years as Director General, Eduardo Pisani announced today his decision to leave the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA)…

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European Vaccine Initiative [to 26 November 2106]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
25 November 2016
Call for abstracts- 2017 SVS skin vaccination summit
The deadline for oral abstract submissions is Friday 2nd December 2016.

25 November 2016
New influenza reagents available from NIBSC
Two new influenza reagents are now available. Influenza anti-A/Michigan/45/2015-like HA serum and Influenza Antigen A/…

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.

If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Parental Refusal of Childhood Vaccines and Medical Neglect Laws

American Journal of Public Health
Volume 106, Issue 11 (November 2016)
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/toc/ajph/current
AJPH SPECIAL SECTION: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
[Reviewed earlier]

e-View ahead of Print
Parental Refusal of Childhood Vaccines and Medical Neglect Laws
Efthimios Parasidis, JD, MBioethics, and Douglas J. Opel, MD, MPH
Abstract
Objectives. To examine the relation of vaccine refusal and medical neglect under child welfare laws.
Methods. We used the Westlaw legal database to search court opinions from 1905 to 2016 and identified cases in which vaccine refusal was the sole or a primary reason in a neglect proceeding. We also delineated if religious or philosophical exemptions from required school immunizations were available at the time of adjudication.
Results. Our search yielded 9 cases from 5 states. Most courts (7 of 9) considered vaccine refusal to constitute neglect. In the 4 cases decided in jurisdictions that permitted religious exemptions, courts either found that vaccine refusal did not constitute neglect or considered it neglect only in the absence of a sincere religious objection to vaccination.
Conclusions. Some states have a legal precedent for considering parental vaccine refusal as medical neglect, but this is based on a small number of cases. Each state should clarify whether, under its laws, vaccine refusal constitutes medical neglect. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 17, 2016: e1–e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303500

BMC Infectious Diseases (Accessed 26 November 2106)

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 26 November 2106)

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Research article
Effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine revaccinations in the elderly: a systematic review
In many industrialized countries routine vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) is recommended to prevent pneumococcal disease in the elderly. However, vaccine-induced imm…
Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Ole Wichmann, Christian Bogdan and Gerhard Falkenhorst
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:711
Published on: 25 November 2016

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Study protocol
A prospective cohort study to assess seroprevalence, incidence, knowledge, attitudes and practices, willingness to pay for vaccine and related risk factors in dengue in a high incidence setting
Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. In Colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. Departments of La Guajira, Cesar…
Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Yalil Tomás Bracho-Churio, Mirley Enith Castro-Salas, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Ronald Giovanny Díaz-Quijano, María Lucrecia Luna-González, Jaime E. Castellanos, José Ramos-Castañeda and Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:705
Published on: 25 November 2016

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Debate
The Ebola Outbreak: Catalyzing a “Shift” in Global Health Governance?
As the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak (EVD) transitions to its post-endemic phase, its impact on the future of global public health, particularly the World Health Organization (WHO), is the subject of conti…
Tim K. Mackey
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:699
Published on: 24 November 2016

BMC Medicine (Accessed 26 November 2106)

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 26 November 2106)

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Commentary
A framework: make it useful to guide and improve practice of clinical trial design in smaller populations
The increased attention to design and analysis of randomised clinical trials in small populations has triggered thinking regarding the most appropriate design methods for a particular clinical research question…
Kit C. B. Roes
BMC Medicine 2016 14:195
Published on: 25 November 2016

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CORRESPONDENCE
How do you design randomised trials for smaller populations? A framework
How should we approach trial design when we can get some, but not all, of the way to the numbers required for a randomised phase III trial?
Mahesh K. B. Parmar, Matthew R. Sydes and Tim P. Morris
BMC Medicine 2016 14:183
Published on: 25 November 2016