Journal of Infectious Diseases – Volume 214 Issue 12 December 15, 2016

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 214 Issue 12 December 15, 2016
http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

VIRUSES
Risk of Delayed Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Inner-City Adolescent Women
J Infect Dis. (2016) 214 (12): 1952-1960 doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw486
Nicolas F. Schlecht, Angela Diaz, Viswanathan Shankar, Arnold H. Szporn, Maoxin Wu,
Anne Nucci-Sack, Ken Peake, Howard D. Strickler, and Robert D. Burk
Abstract
Background.
Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States is slow, and the effectiveness of the vaccine has not been assessed in high-risk adolescent populations.
Methods.
We conducted a longitudinal study of 1139 sexually active, inner-city adolescent women receiving the 3-dose quadrivalent (4vHPV) vaccine. Cervical and anal specimens collected semiannually were tested using an L1-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Postvaccination incidence of 4vHPV vaccine and nonvaccine HPV types, and risk of cervical cytological abnormalities, were assessed in relation to time to completion of all 3 vaccine doses.
Results.
Compared to vaccine naive women at enrollment, vaccinated women had significantly lower incidence rate ratios of cervical infection with HPV6/11/16/18 (0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], .1–.4) and the related types HPV31 and HPV45 (0.4 [95% CI, .2–1.0] and 0.3 [95% CI, .1–.6], respectively), as well as significantly lower incidence rate ratios of anal infection with HPV6/11/16/18 (0.4; 95% CI, .2–.7). Notably, we observed higher risks of cervical HPV6/11/16/18 infection (hazards ratio [HR], 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0–8.0) and associated cytological abnormalities (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, .7–26.0) among women immunized at ≥15 years of age who took ≥12 months (vs Conclusions.
Among adolescents immunized at ≥15 years of age, a longer time to complete the 3-dose schedule was associated with an increased risk of anogenital HPV6/11/16/18 infection and an increased incidence of associated cervical cytological abnormalities.