POLIO [to 21 January 2017]

POLIO [to 21 January 2017]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 17 January 2017
:: Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) – changes to its membership: The IMB, established in 2010 to independently monitor progress towards a polio-free world, is undertaking changes to its membership. Under the guidance of the IMB and its chair, Sir Liam Donaldson, polio has been restricted to areas of just three countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. To help achieve a polio-free world, the structure and composition of the IMB is now being revisited, in particular to strengthen its remit to focus solely on Objective 1 of the Polio Endgame Plan – detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission. At the request of the Polio Oversight Board (POB), Sir Liam will continue to chair the IMB and will form a selection committee to identify a new set of members. A call for nomination will be issued over the coming weeks. The GPEI owe a great debt of gratitude for the invaluable contribution that the current members of the IMB have made to this historic endeavour, and we look forward to working with the new, re-structured IMB to lead us over the finish line.

Country Updates [Selected Excerpts]

Afghanistan
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week from Bermal district, Paktika province, with onset of paralysis on 16 December 2016.  This brings the total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 to 13.  More than half of the country’s cases in 2016 are from Bermal district.
:: One new environmental WPV1 positive sample was reported in the past week from Jalalabad, Nangarhar, collected on 26 December 2016.

Pakistan
:: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, from Killa Abdullah, Balochistan, with onset of paralysis on 22 December 2016. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 to 20.
:: One new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) positive environmental sample was reported in the past week, from Quetta, Balochistan, collected on 28 December 2016. This isolate is linked to an ongoing, confirmed cVDPV2 outbreak currently affecting Quetta.

Nigeria
:: A circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been detected from Bodinga Local Government Area (LGA), Sokoto state. Two genetically-related viruses were isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case with onset of paralysis on 28 October 2016, and from a healthy community contact, collected on 24 November.

Lake Chad Basin
:: The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) and vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2) in Nigeria poses a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin and hence an outbreak response plan is being implemented as part of the response to the Nigeria outbreak.