Journal of Infectious Diseases – Volume 215 Issue 1 January 1, 2017

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 215 Issue 1 January 1, 2017

A Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blinded Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With or Without Alum Adjuvant
J Infect Dis. (2017) 215 (1): 24-33 doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw453
Joanne M. Langley, Naresh Aggarwal, Azhar Toma, Scott A. Halperin, Shelly A. McNeil, Laurence Fissette, Walthere Dewé, Maarten Leyssen, Jean-François Toussaint, and Ilse Dieussaert

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost preexisting immune responses, providing passive protection to newborns through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody.

In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV protein F vaccine engineered to preferentially maintain prefusion conformation (RSV-PreF), 128 healthy men 18–44 years old were randomized to one dose of a RSV-PreF vaccine containing 10, 30, or 60 µg of RSV-PreF antigen, with or without alum adjuvant, or control, and followed for one year for safety and immunogenicity outcomes.

Injection site pain was the most common adverse event, reported by up to 81.3% of participants. The highest RSV neutralizing antibody responses were in the 30 µg RSV-PreF/alum, 60 µg RSV-PreF/alum, and 60 µg RSV-PreF/nonadjuvant groups. Responses were evident on day 7, and 30 days after vaccination these participants had RSV-A neutralizing antibody titers of ≥1:512, and >70% had titers of 1:1024, with titers increasing by 3.2–4.9 fold. Responses remained high on day 60 but waned on days 180 and 360.

The RSV-PreF vaccine elicited rapid RSV neutralizing antibody responses in healthy young men, with an acceptable adverse event profile.