Environmental and Social Change Drive the Explosive Emergence of Zika Virus in the Americas

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org
(Accessed 11 February 2017)

Review
Environmental and Social Change Drive the Explosive Emergence of Zika Virus in the Americas
Sofia Ali, Olivia Gugliemini, Serena Harber, Alexandra Harrison, Lauren Houle, Javarcia Ivory, Sierra Kersten, Rebia Khan, Jenny Kim, Chris LeBoa, Emery Nez-Whitfield, Jamieson O’Marr, Emma Rothenberg, R. Max Segnitz, Stephanie Sila, Anna Verwillow, Miranda Vogt, Adrienne Yang, Erin A. Mordecai
published 09 Feb 2017 P
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005135
Abstract
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission. Here, we review hypotheses and preliminary evidence for the environmental and social changes that have fueled the ZIKV epidemic. Potential drivers include climate variation, land use change, poverty, and human movement. Beyond the direct impact of microcephaly and GBS, the ZIKV epidemic will likely have social ramifications for women’s health and economic consequences for tourism and beyond.