Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 7, Pages 993-1100 (15 February 2017)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/35/7

Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India
Original Research Article
Pages 1087-1093
Arpita Ghosh, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Abstract
Background
Although 93% of 12- to 23-month-old children in India receive at least one vaccine, typically Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, only 75% complete the recommended three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT, also referred to as DTP) vaccine. Determinants can be different for nonvaccination and dropout but have not been examined in earlier studies. We use the three-dose DPT series as a proxy for the full sequence of recommended childhood vaccines and examine the determinants of DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3.
Methods
We analyzed data on 75,728 6- to 23-month-old children in villages across India to study demand- and supply-side factors determining nonvaccination with DPT and dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, using a multilevel approach. Data come from the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007–08).
Results
Individual- and household-level factors were associated with both DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3. Children whose mothers had no schooling were 2.3 times more likely not to receive any DPT vaccination and 1.5 times more likely to drop out between DPT doses 1 and 3, compared with children whose mothers had 10 or more years of schooling. Although supply-side factors related to availability of public health facilities and immunization-related health workers in villages were not correlated with dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, children in districts where 46% or more villages had a healthcare subcentre were 1.5 times more likely to receive at least one dose of DPT vaccine compared with children in districts where 30% or fewer villages had subcentres.
Conclusions
Nonvaccination with DPT in India is influenced by village- and district-level contextual factors over and above individuals’ background characteristics. Dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3 is associated more strongly with demand-side factors than with village- and district-level supply-side factors.