From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Early Release Articles – Last updated March 13, 2017
Immune Memory and Vaccines: Great Debates What Is Wrong with Pertussis Vaccine Immunity?: Inducing and Recalling Vaccine-Specific Immunity
Christiane S. Eberhardt and Claire-Anne Siegrist
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a029629
Acellular pertussis vaccines exhibit only short-term effectiveness. This may be due to (1) vaccine-specific (not pathogen-specific) immunity and (2) the failure of memory B and T cells to reactivate upon pathogen exposure.
Immune Memory and Vaccines: Great Debates What Is Wrong with Pertussis Vaccine Immunity?: Why Immunological Memory to Pertussis Is Failing
Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos and Kathryn Margaret Edwards
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a029553
Children primed with acellular pertussis vaccines exhibit a Th2-dominant immune response and possess higher levels of antigen-specific IgG4, which leads to a suboptimal immune response and the progressive loss of protection.
Immune Memory and Vaccines: Great Debates What Is Wrong with Pertussis Vaccine Immunity?: The Problem of Waning Effectiveness of Pertussis Vaccines
Nicolas Burdin, L.K. Handy, and S.A. Plotkin
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a029454
Acellular pertussis vaccines provide protection during the first years of life, but their effectiveness wanes a few years post-boosters. This may be because these vaccines tend to produce Th1/Th2 responses (instead of Th1/Th17).
Available online 9 March 2017 In Press, Accepted Manuscript
Impact of Non-Medical Vaccine Exemption Policies on the Health and Economic Burden of Measles
MD Whittington, A Kempe, A Dempsey, R Herlihy… – Academic Pediatrics, 2017
Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to non-medical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies.
An agent-based transmission model simulated the likelihood and magnitude of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies, previously categorized as easy, medium, or difficult. The model accounted for measles herd immunity, infectiousness of the pathogen, vaccine efficacy, duration of incubation and communicable periods, acquired natural immunity, and the rate of recovery. Public health contact tracing was also modeled. Model outcomes, including the number of secondary cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, were monetized to determine the economic burden of the simulated outbreaks.
A state with easy non-medical vaccine exemption policies is 140% and 190% more likely to experience a measles outbreak compared to states with medium or difficult policies, respectively. The magnitude of these outbreaks can be reduced by half by strengthening exemption policies. These declines are associated with significant cost reductions to public health, the healthcare system, and the individual.
Strengthening non-medical vaccine exemption policies is one mechanism to increase vaccination coverage to reduce the health and economic impact of a measles outbreak. States exploring options for decreasing their vulnerability to outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases should consider more stringent requirements for non-medical vaccine exemptions.
Computational Biology and Chemistry
Available online 10 March 2017 In Press, Accepted Manuscript
A Bioinformatics approach to designing a Zika virus vaccine
S Dey, A Nandy, SC Basak, P Nandy, S Das
:: Zika virus envelope gene and protein sequences analysed.
:: Based on maximum sequences available, identified peptide segments with minimum variability and maximum surface accessibility using alignment-free numerical characterization techniques.
:: Checked identified regions on 3D crystal structures to ensure solvent accessibility.
:: Confirmed linear and conformational epitope potential of identified segments using web based servers.
:: Confirmed no auto-immune threats from the segments that passed all the above tests.
:: These peptide regions are suggested as starting points for rational design of peptide vaccines subject to wet lab verification.
The Zika virus infections have reached epidemic proportions in the Latin American countries causing severe birth defects and neurological disorders. While several organizations have begun research into design of prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic drugs, computer assisted methods with adequate data resources can be expected to assist in these measures to reduce lead times through bioinformatics approaches. Using 60 sequences of the Zika virus envelope protein available in the GenBank database, our analysis with numerical characterization techniques and several web based bioinformatics servers identified four peptide stretches on the Zika virus envelope protein that are well conserved and surface exposed and are predicted to have reasonable epitope binding efficiency. These peptides can be expected to form the basis for a nascent peptide vaccine which, enhanced by incorporation of suitable adjuvants, can elicit immune response against the Zika virus infections.