From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Wellcome Open Research
2017, 2:12
Research Article
Crude childhood vaccination coverage in West Africa: Trends and predictors of completeness
JS Kazungu, IMO Adetifa –
Abstract
Background: Africa has the lowest childhood vaccination coverage worldwide. If the full benefits of childhood vaccination programmes are to be enjoyed in sub-Saharan Africa, all countries need to improve on vaccine delivery to achieve and sustain high coverage. In this paper, we review trends in vaccination coverage, dropouts between vaccine doses and explored the country-specific predictors of complete vaccination in West Africa.
Methods: We utilized datasets from the Demographic and Health Surveys Program, available for Benin, Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, to obtain coverage for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, polio, measles, and diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccines in children aged 12 – 23 months. We also calculated the DPT1-to-DPT3 and DPT1-to-measles dropouts, and proportions of the fully immunised child (FIC). Factors predictive of FIC were explored using Chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression.
Results: Overall, there was a trend of increasing vaccination coverage. The proportion of FIC varied significantly by country (range 24.1-81.4%, mean 49%). DPT1-to-DPT3 dropout was high (range 5.1% -33.9%, mean 16.3%). Similarly, DPT1-measles dropout exceeded 10% in all but four countries. Although no single risk factor was consistently associated with FIC across these countries, maternal education, delivery in a health facility, possessing a vaccine card and a recent post delivery visit to a health facility were the key predictors of complete vaccination.
Conclusions: The low numbers of fully immunised children and high dropout between vaccine doses highlights weaknesses and the need to strengthen the healthcare and routine immunization delivery systems in this region. Country-specific correlates of complete vaccination should be explored further to identify interventions required to increase vaccination coverage. Despite the promise of an increasing trend in vaccination coverage in West African countries, more effort is required to attain and maintain global vaccination coverage targets.

Health Systems and Policy Research
Vol. 4 No. 1: 42 2017
Setting the Scene for Post-Ebola Health System Recovery and Resilience in Liberia: Lessons Learned and the Way Forward
B Harris, MZ Gebrekidan, H Karamagi, P Tumusiime… –
Abstract
Following the devastation caused by the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Liberia there remains much to be done for the health system to fully recover and become resilient against any future public health threat. Liberia is a post-conflict setting having experienced prolonged years of civil conflict that weakened the health system. With the decline in the incidence of new Ebola cases in late 2014 and the progressive draw down of the emergency and humanitarian response resources from early 2015, the government of Liberia moved to set the scene for the health system’s recovery and resilience through the development of a comprehensive seven-year Investment Plan for building a resilient health system (2015-2021). The Plan aims to ensure universal health coverage, guarantee health security and
improve health outcomes for the population of Liberia, while complementing the National Health Policy and Plan (2011-2021). The plan requires the investment of 1.7 billion US dollars over a period of seven years and realignments that the Government of Liberia alone does not currently have the capacity to undertake without long term external support. This paper describes the experience of Liberia in the development of the Investment Plan for building a resilient health system following the 2014-15 Ebola crisis, the approaches, process and realignments that were undertaken, lessons learned, and the way forward. It aims to provide lessons for countries recovering from crises, on how to manage their system recovery efforts.

Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery
First Published March 21, 2017 research-article
A Survey of Wisconsin Pediatricians’ Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
MR Rohrbach, AM Wieland
Abstract
Objective
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is common and carries a significant burden of disease. This is increasingly apparent in males with the rising incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unfortunately, vaccination rates remain poor and are lowest in males. It is unclear if pediatricians are aware of the alarming rise of HPV-mediated head and neck cancers and the disproportionate effect on males.
Study Design
This investigation used a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design.
Setting
The survey was developed by investigators in the University of Wisconsin Division of Otolaryngology.
Subjects and Methods
The survey was distributed to 831 members of the Wisconsin Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Results
A total response rate of 49.6% was achieved. Most supported routine vaccination in both sexes. Females are regarded as being at higher risk of an HPV-related cancer and are more often recommended vaccination. Most providers are unaware of the magnitude of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer and the greater affliction in males.
Conclusions
Male vaccination is overwhelmingly supported by Wisconsin pediatricians, yet there is a preponderance toward vaccinating females, who are perceived as having greater risk for HPV-associated disease. This is likely because providers are unaware of the magnitude of HPV-driven oropharyngeal cancer and its predilection for males. A lack of provider awareness, in combination with out-of-date education material for parents, likely contributes to poor vaccination rates in males.