Epidemiology and Infection, Volume 145 – Issue 5 – April 2017

Epidemiology and Infection
Volume 145 – Issue 5 – April 2017

Research Article
Long-term effectiveness of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine 22–28 years after immunization in a hepatitis B virus endemic rural area: is an adult booster dose needed?
Published online: 09 January 2017, pp. 887-894
H. LI, G. J. LI, Q. Y. CHEN, Z. L. FANG, X. Y. WANG, C. TAN, Q. L. YANG, F. Z. WANG, F. WANG, S. ZHANG, S. L. BI, L. P. SHEN
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816003046


Research Article
Maximizing the benefits of ART and PrEP in resource-limited settings
Published online: 29 December 2016, pp. 942-956
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816002958
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly being used as an HIV-prevention tool, administered to uninfected people with ongoing HIV exposure as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to infected people to reduce their infectiousness. We used a modelling approach to determine the optimal population-level combination of ART and PrEP allocations required in South Africa to maximize programme effectiveness for four outcome measures: new infections, infection-years, death and cost. We considered two different strategies for allocating treatment, one that selectively allocates drugs to sex workers and one that does not. We found that for low treatment availability, prevention through PrEP to the general population or PrEP and ART to sex workers is key to maximizing effectiveness, while for higher drug availability, ART to the general population is optimal. At South Africa’s current level of treatment availability, using prevention is most effective at reducing new infections, infection-years, and cost, while using the treatment as ART to the general population best reduces deaths. At treatment levels that meet the UNAIDS’s ambitious new 90–90–90 target, using all or almost all treatment as ART to the general population best reduces all four outcome measures considered.