American Journal of Preventive Medicine
April 2017 Volume 52, Issue 4, p417-556, e95-e122
Parental-Reported Full Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Children in the U.S.
Yusheng Zhai, Tammy A. Santibanez, Katherine E. Kahn, Anup Srivastav
Published online: December 22, 2016
Depending upon influenza vaccination history, children aged 6 months–8 years need one or two doses of influenza vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated. The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated against influenza based on parental report, overall, by state, and by sociodemographic characteristics, and to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with being fully vaccinated.
Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were analyzed in 2015 using the Kaplan–Meier method to produce vaccination coverage estimates. Wald chi-square tests were used to test for bivariate associations, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for demographic characteristics independently associated with the child being fully vaccinated.
The percentages of children aged 6 months–8 years who were fully vaccinated during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons were 41.0% and 45.2%, respectively. Full vaccination varied widely by state and was more likely for children requiring only one dose. Based on the statistical models, children likely to be fully vaccinated were older, non-black, had a mother with an education >12 years, or lived in a high-income household.
Most children in the U.S. are not fully vaccinated against influenza. Reminder systems and interventions that reduce or remove barriers to children receiving their second doses of influenza vaccine may improve full influenza vaccination coverage among all children.