Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review has expanded its coverage of new reports, books, research and analysis published independent of the journal channel covered in Journal Watch below. Our interests span immunization and vaccines, as well as global public health, health governance, and associated themes. If you would like to suggest content to be included in this service, please contact David Curry at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience
National Academy of Sciences – Committee on Clinical Trials During the 2014-15 Ebola Outbreak
Released April 12, 2017 :: 287 pages
The 2014 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths. In the midst of the rapidly spreading, highly dangerous contagious disease—with no Ebola-specific vaccines or therapeutics available to help curb the epidemic—the international community implemented clinical trials on investigational agents, not yet studied in humans for safety or efficacy. Within that context, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, supported the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to convene a committee to analyze the clinical trials that were conducted during the epidemic and consider the many scientific, ethical and practical issues related to the conduct of research in similar contexts. The resulting report, Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience, assesses the value of the trials and makes recommendations about how the conduct of trials could be improved in the context of a future international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease event.
Fostering Integrity in Research
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Policy and Global Affairs; Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy
2017 :: 284 pages
ISBN 978-0-309-39125-2 | DOI: 10.17226/21896
The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations in which research is conducted encourage those involved to exemplify these values in every step of the research process. Understanding the dynamics that support – or distort – practices that uphold the integrity of research by all participants ensures that the research enterprise advances knowledge.
The 1992 report Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process evaluated issues related to scientific responsibility and the conduct of research. It provided a valuable service in describing and analyzing a very complicated set of issues, and has served as a crucial basis for thinking about research integrity for more than two decades. However, as experience has accumulated with various forms of research misconduct, detrimental research practices, and other forms of misconduct, as subsequent empirical research has revealed more about the nature of scientific misconduct, and because technological and social changes have altered the environment in which science is conducted, it is clear that the framework established more than two decades ago needs to be updated.
Responsible Science served as a valuable benchmark to set the context for this most recent analysis and to help guide the committee’s thought process. Fostering Integrity in Research identifies best practices in research and recommends practical options for discouraging and addressing research misconduct and detrimental research practices.
Kaiser Permanente Study Tests New Way to Reduce ‘Vaccine Hesitancy’
Parent volunteers who value immunization show promise as advocates to help protect communities against contagious diseases
SEATTLE, April 11, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — Results are promising for a new approach to reducing “vaccine hesitancy,” which happens when parents’ concerns about vaccine safety lead them to delay or skip their children’s immunizations, according to a Kaiser Permanente study published today in Health Promotion Practice: The Immunity Community: A Community Engagement Strategy for Reducing Vaccine Hesitancy.
The approach, called the Immunity Community, mobilizes parents who value vaccination to be advocates and to have positive conversations with other parents at their kids’ childcare centers, preschools and schools — in person and through social media.
Parents took a survey before and after the three-year intervention in two communities in Washington state. The surveys showed significant improvements in vaccine-related attitudes:
:: Parents concerned about others not vaccinating their children rose from 81 percent to 89 percent.
:: Those who called themselves “vaccine hesitant” fell from 23 percent to 14 percent.
Fewer parents thought children receive vaccines at too young an age.
:: More parents were confident that vaccinating their children is a good decision.
:: More parents knew the vaccination rates at their children’s childcare or school.
“Our evaluation found that the Immunity Community program was successful at empowering parents to communicate positive messages about vaccines in a way that was not confrontational,” said study principal investigator Clarissa Hsu, PhD, of Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute’s Center for Community Health and Evaluation.
“Strong negative rhetoric about vaccines can circulate widely on social media. And some parents feel hesitant about early childhood vaccines and may delay or refuse some or all vaccines, which may put others in their community at risk,” Hsu said. “This project was designed to counterbalance prevalent anti-vaccine messages that do not reflect the fact that most (at least four in five) people vaccinate their kids and are supportive of vaccines.”…
Health Promotion Practice
First published date: April-11-2017
The Immunity Community: A Community Engagement Strategy for Reducing Vaccine Hesitancy
Jennie Schoeppe, MPH, MSPT, Allen Cheadle, PhD, Mackenzie Melton, MPH, Todd Faubion, PhD, Creagh Miller, MPH, Juno Matthys, BS, Clarissa Hsu, PhD
Parental concerns about vaccine safety have grown in the United States and abroad, resulting in delayed or skipped immunizations (often called “vaccine hesitancy”). To address vaccine hesitancy in Washington State, a public–private partnership of health organizations implemented and evaluated a 3-year community intervention, called the “Immunity Community.” The intervention mobilized parents who value immunization and provided them with tools to engage in positive dialogue about immunizations in their communities. The evaluation used qualitative and quantitative methods, including focus groups, interviews, and pre and post online surveys of parents, to assess perceptions about and reactions to the intervention, assess facilitators and barriers to success, and track outcomes including parental knowledge and attitudes. The program successfully engaged parent volunteers to be immunization advocates. Surveys of parents in the intervention communities showed statistically significant improvements in vaccine-related attitudes: The percentage concerned about other parents not vaccinating their children increased from 81.2% to 88.6%, and the percentage reporting themselves as “vaccine-hesitant” decreased from 22.6% to 14.0%. There were not statistically significant changes in parental behaviors. This study demonstrates the promise of using parent advocates as part of a community-based approach to reduce vaccine hesitancy.