Immunogenicity to poliovirus type 2 following two doses of fractional intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: A novel dose sparing immunization schedule

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 22, Pages 2871-3006 (19 May 2017)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/35/22

Immunogenicity to poliovirus type 2 following two doses of fractional intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: A novel dose sparing immunization schedule
Original Research Article
Pages 2993-2998
Abhijeet Anand, Natalie A. Molodecky, Mark A. Pallansch, Roland W. Sutter
Abstract
Introduction
The polio eradication endgame strategic plan calls for the sequential removal of Sabin poliovirus serotypes from the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), starting with type 2, and the introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), to maintain an immunity base against poliovirus type 2. The global removal of oral poliovirus type 2 was successfully implemented in May 2016. However, IPV supply constraints has prevented introduction in 21 countries and led to complete stock-out in >20 countries.
Methods
We conducted a literature review and contacted corresponding authors of recent studies with fractional-dose IPV (fIPV), one-fifth of intramuscular dose administered intradermally, to conduct additional type 2 immunogenicity analyses of two fIPV doses compared with one full-dose IPV.
Results
Four studies were identified that assessed immunogenicity of two fIPV doses compared to one full-dose IPV. Two fractional doses are more immunogenic than 1 full-dose, with type 2 seroconversion rates improving between absolute 19–42% (median: 37%, p < 0.001) and relative increase of 53–125% (median: 82%), and antibody titer to type 2 increasing by 2–32-fold (median: 10-fold). Early age of administration and shorter intervals between doses were associated with lower immunogenicity.
Discussion
Overall, two fIPV doses are more immunogenic than a single full-dose, associated with significantly increased seroconversion rates and antibody titers. Two fIPV doses together use two-fifth of the vaccine compared to one full-dose IPV. In response to the current IPV shortage, a schedule of two fIPV doses at ages 6 and 14 weeks has been endorsed by technical oversight committees and has been introduced in some affected countries