BMC Public Health
(Accessed 13 May 2017)
The impact of income inequality and national wealth on child and adolescent mortality in low and middle-income countries
Joseph L. Ward and Russell M. Viner
BMC Public Health 2017 17:429
Published on: 11 May 2017
Income inequality and national wealth are strong determinants for health, but few studies have systematically investigated their influence on mortality across the early life-course, particularly outside the high-income world.
We performed cross-sectional regression analyses of the relationship between income inequality (national Gini coefficient) and national wealth (Gross Domestic Product (GDP) averaged over previous decade), and all-cause and grouped cause national mortality rate amongst infants, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19 and 20–24 year olds in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) in 2012. Gini models were adjusted for GDP.
Data were available for 103 (79%) countries. Gini was positively associated with increased all-cause and communicable disease mortality in both sexes across all age groups, after adjusting for national wealth. Gini was only positively associated with increased injury mortality amongst infants and 20–24 year olds, and increased non-communicable disease mortality amongst 20–24 year old females. The strength of these associations tended to increase during adolescence.
Increasing GDP was negatively associated with all-cause, communicable and non-communicable disease mortality in males and females across all age groups. GDP was also associated with decreased injury mortality in all age groups except 15–19 year old females, and 15–24 year old males. GDP became a weaker predictor of mortality during adolescence.
Policies to reduce income inequality, rather than prioritising economic growth at all costs, may be needed to improve adolescent mortality in low and middle-income countries, a key development priority.
The comprehensive ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination in routine and campaign contexts
Communication can be used to generate demand for vaccination or address vaccine hesitancy, and is crucial to successful childhood vaccination programmes. Research efforts have primarily focused on communication for routine vaccination. However, vaccination campaigns, particularly in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs), also use communication in diverse ways.
Without a comprehensive framework integrating communication interventions from routine and campaign contexts, it is not possible to conceptualise the full range of possible vaccination communication interventions. Therefore, vaccine programme managers may be unaware of potential communication options and researchers may not focus on building evidence for interventions used in practice.
In this paper, we broaden the scope of our existing taxonomy of communication interventions for routine vaccination to include communication used in campaigns, and integrate these into a comprehensive taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions.
Jessica Kaufman, Heather Ames, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Yuri Cartier, Julie Cliff, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Angela Oyo-Ita, Gabriel Rada and Sophie Hill
BMC Public Health 2017 17:423
Published on: 10 May 2017
Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands
Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisati…
Willemijn L. Vlieg, Ewout B. Fanoy, Liselotte van Asten, Xiaobo Liu, Jun Yang, Eva Pilot, Paul Bijkerk, Wim van der Hoek, Thomas Krafft, Marianne A. van der Sande and Qi-Yong Liu
BMC Public Health 2017 17:415
Published on: 8 May 2017