From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary
First Online: 16 May 2017
Immunization During Pregnancy: Impact on the Infant
KP Perrett, TM Nolan –
Maternal immunization has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, as women and healthcare providers accept and recognize the benefits of this strategy not only for the pregnant woman but also for the developing fetus and young infant. This article reviews the evidence for active immunization during pregnancy, with an emphasis on perinatal and infant outcomes. Current recommendations for immunization during pregnancy are presented, with particular focus on the routinely recommended vaccines during pregnancy: influenza and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis). We discuss future research directions, maternal vaccines in development, and considerations for optimizing and advancing this underutilized strategy.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Volume 64, August 2017, Pages 11–21
Biotechnology and the transformation of vaccine innovation: The case of the hepatitis B vaccines 1968–2000
F Huzair, S Sturdy
:: The recombinant hepatitis B vaccines rehabilitated vaccines as commercially interesting pharmaceutical products.
:: The recombinant hepatitis B vaccines helped substantially to establish the commercial viability of the biotech sector.
:: The commercial success of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was largely unanticipated.
:: The recombinant hepatitis vaccines helped establish a two-tier global vaccine innovation system.
The approval, from 1986, of a series of recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was a landmark both in the growth of biotechnology and in the development of the vaccine innovation system. In this paper, we show how the early development of the hepatitis B vaccines was shaped by a political and economic context that newly favoured commercialisation of academic research, including the appropriation and management of intellectual property; we elucidate the contingent interests and motivations that led new biotechnology companies and established pharmaceutical businesses to invest in developing recombinant vaccines specifically against hepatitis B; and we show how these and other factors combined to make those vaccines an unexpected commercial success. Broadening the scope of our analysis to include not just North America and Europe but also low- and middle-income countries, we show how the development of the hepatitis B vaccines facilitated the emergence of a two-tier innovation system structured by tensions between the demands for commercial profitability on the one hand, and the expectation of public health benefit for low- and middle-income countries on the other.
American Journal of Epidemiology
2017 May 6. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx048. [Epub ahead of print]
Imputing direct and indirect vaccine effectiveness of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive disease by surveying temporal changes in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization
SA Nzenze, SA Madhi, T Shiri, KP Klugman…
The limited capabilities in most low-middle income countries to study the bebfit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), calls for alternate strategies to assess this. We used a mathematical model, to predict the direct and indirect effectiveness of PCV by analyzing serotype specific colonization prevalence and IPD incidence prior to and following childhood PCV immunization in South Africa. We analyzed IPD incidence from 2005-2012 and colonization studies undertaken in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected child-mother dyads from 2007-2009 (pre-PCV era), in 2010 (7-valent PCV era) and 2012 (13-valent PCV era). We compared the model-predicted to observed changes in IPD incidence, stratified by HIV-status in children >3 months to 5 years and also in women aged >18-45 years. We observed reductions in vaccine-serotype colonization and IPD due to vaccine serotypes among children and women after PCV introduction. Using the changes in vaccine-serotype colonization data, the model-predicted changes in vaccine-serotype IPD incidence rates were similar to the observed changes in PCV-unvaccinated children and adults, but not among children <24 months. Surveillance of colonization prior and following PCV use can be used to impute PCVs’ indirect associations in unvaccinated age groups, including in high HIV-prevalence settings.