Volume 35, Issue 24, Pages 3153-3280 (31 May 2017)
No association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes
Original Research Article
Ousseny Zerbo, Sharareh Modaressi, Berwick Chan, Kristin Goddard, Ned Lewis, Karin Bok, Bruce Fireman, Nicola P. Klein, Roger Baxter
Pregnant women are recommended to receive inactivated influenza vaccination anytime during pregnancy. Studies have investigated the impact of influenza vaccination during pregnancy on birth outcomes and results on preterm birth have been inconsistent.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among children born at a gestational age ≥ 24 weeks from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities (KPNC). We evaluated the association between maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, small and large for gestational age, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), respiratory distress syndrome, low birth weight, and low Apgar score. We ascertained the dates of maternal influenza vaccination, conception, and delivery, as well as birth outcomes from KPNC inpatient and outpatient databases. Conditional multivariate Cox regression and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal vaccination during pregnancy and risk of each birth outcome.
The study included 145,869 children. Maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with risk of small or large for gestational age births, preterm birth, need for mechanical ventilation at birth, respiratory distress syndrome, admission to the NICU, low birth weight, or low Apgar score. However, when we did not control for immortal time bias, the risk of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66–0.72) was lower among infants of vaccinated mothers.
We found no association between maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. When investigating preterm birth outcome in association with vaccination during pregnancy, immortal time bias should be taken into account in the analysis.